Prin ISSN 0253-8040
Online ISSN 0974-8164

Indian Journal of

Weed Science

Editorial Board

Chief Editor


Dr. J.S. Mishra
Principal Scientist, Division of Crop Research,
ICAR Research Complex for Eastern Region,
Bihar Veterinary College, Patna - 800014 (Bihar)
Mobile - +91 9494240904
Email- editorisws@gmail, jsmishra31@gmail.com

Associate editors

&
Dr. Bhagirath Singh Chauhan
Hydarabad, INDIA
Email: b.chauhan@uq.edu.au
Dr. A.N. Rao
Hydarabad, INDIA
Mobile Number: +91 9440372165
Email: adusumilli.narayanarao@gmail.com

Editor- News Letter-Electronic


Dr. S.K. Guru
Pant Nagar, UK, INDIA
Mobile - +91 9411195441
Email- skguru123@yahoo.com

Editors

Dr. A.S. Rao
Mobile Number: 9959347340
Email: atlurisrao@gmail.com
Dr. Anil Duhan
Mobile - +91 9466051639
Email- a.duhan@rediffmail.com
Dr. Ashok Yadav
Mobile - +91 9416995523
Email- aky444@gmail.com
Dr. B. Duary
Mobile Number: +91 9434326193
Email: bduary@yahoo.co.in
Dr. C.R. Chinnamuthu
Mobile - +91 9442014373
Email- crchinnamuthu@yahoo.com
Dr. I.C. Barua
Mobile - +91 9435094326
Email- iswar_barua@yahoo.co.in
Dr. M.K. Singh
Mobile - +91
Email-
Dr. P. Janaki (Coimbatore)
Mobile Number: 9443936160
Email: janakibalamurugan@rediffmail.com
Dr. R. Poonguzhalan
Mobile Number: 9994556988
Email: poonguzhalan@yahoo.com
Dr. R.S. Chhokar
Mobile Number: 9416296262
Email: rs_chhokar@yahoo.co.in
Dr. V.S.G.R. Naidu (Rajahmundry)
Mobile - +91 8790819002
Email- naidudwsr@gmail.comm
Dr. Vijay Kumar Choudhary
Mobile - +91 9425244075
Email- ind_vc@rediffmail.com
Dr. Virender Sardana
Mobile Number: 9463747125
Email: virsardana@gmail.com
Dr. Yogita Gharde
Mobile - +91 9425412748
Email- yogitagharde@gmail.com

Overseas editors

Email: jpacific10@gmail.com
Email: amit.jhala@unl.edu
Email: asad.iags@pu.edu.pk
Email: zahoorganie11@huskers.unl.edu
Email: haider3993@gmail.com
Effect of herbicides and their combinations on weed growth and yield of transplanted rice
Author Name: Tej Pratap, V. Pratap Singh, S.P. Singh and Rekha
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00093.9 Page No:356-359
Volume: 48 2016 Full length articles
Keywords:

Grain yield, Herbicide combinations, Ready mix, Transplanted rice, Weed Control efficiency 

Abstract:

A field experiment was carried out at Norman E. Borlaug Crop Research Centre of G.B.P.U.A.&T, Pantnagar U.S. Nagar, Uttarakhand during Kharif season of 2012 and 2013 to find out the efficacy of different herbicide combinations in transplanted rice. The experimental site was silty clay loam in texture, medium in organic carbon (0.66%), available phosphorus (27.5 kg/ha) and potassium (243.5 kg/ha) with PH 7.3. Echinochloa colona, Echinochloa crus-galli, Leptochloa chinensis, Alternanthera sessilis, Ammania baccifera, Caesulia axillaris and Cyperus iria were the major weeds in experimental field. Bispyribac–sodium + ethoxysulfuron 25 + 18.75 g/ha having statically similar with pretilachlor 750 g/ha fb ready mix of chlorimuron-ethyl + metsulfuron-methyl 4 g/ha and bispyribac-sodium + ready mix of chlorimuron-ethyl + metsulfuron-methyl 20 + 4 g/ha resulted in significantly lowest total weed density, dry matter accumulation and highest weed control efficiency, respectively. The maximum grain yield was recorded with twice hand weeding at 25 and 45 DAT, which was statistically at par with bispyribac–sodium + ethoxysulfuron 25 +18.75 g/ha, pretilachlor 750 g/ha fb ready mix of chlorimuron-ethyl + metsulfuron-methyl 4 g/ha, bispyribac–sodium + ready mix of chlorimuron-ethyl + metsulfuron-methyl 20 + 4 g/ha and pretilachlor 750 g/ha fb ethoxysulfuron 18.75 g/ha over the weedy check.

Address: Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology Pantnagar, U.S. Nagar, Uttarakhand 263 145
Email: drtpsingh2010@gmail.com
Nitrogen and weed management effect on soil microbial properties in rice-based cropping system under conservation agriculture
Author Name: Anoop Kumar Rathore, A.R. Sharma, C. Sarathambal, M.C. Bhambri and G.K. Shrivastava
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00094.0 Page No:360-363
Volume: 48 2016 Full length articles
Keywords:

Actinobacteria, Bacteria, Fungi, N-levels, Residue management, Tillage, Weed management

Abstract:

A study was carried out to evaluate the influence of tillage-residue management, N-levels and weed management on the population of bacteria, fungi and actinobacteria in soil under rice-wheat-greengram system during 2014-15 to 2015-16 at Jabalpur, India. Results showed that tillage-residue management had significant influence on microbial properties of soil. Zero tillage with preceding crop residue retention followed in all three crops in a system markedly improved soil microorganism communities by stimulating the growth of bacteria, fungi and actinobacteria. After two years of the study, conservation agriculture based practice, i.e. zero tillage with preceding crop residue retention increased population of bacteria by 65-83%, fungi by 28-32% and actinobacteria by 22-37% compared with conventional tillage with or without preceding crop residue. No significant differences in the population of bacteria and fungi were found between N-levels in 2014-15, while significant improvement was observed in 100% recommended dose of N in 2015-16. Improvement in bacterial and fungal population due to 100% recommended dose of N was 4 and 7% over 125% recommended dose of N, respectively. There was no significant change in microbial activities due to different weed management practices. These results suggest that zero tillage with preceding crop residue retention, recommended dose of N was the best practice for improving soil biological properties under rice-wheat-greengram system.

Address: ICAR-Directorate of Weed Research, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh 482 004
Email: anprathore@gmail.com
Management of complex weed flora with herbicides in direct-seeded rice under lateritic soil
Author Name: S.S. Pinjari*, S.B. Gangawane, N.V. Mhaskar, S.A. Chavan, U.V. Mahadkar and V.A. Rajemahadik
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00095.2 Page No:364-368
Volume: 48 2016 Full length articles
Keywords:

Direct-seeded rice, Weed density, Weed growth, Weed management, Yield

Abstract:

Efficient weed management, restricting weed growth and weed density particularly within the critical growth period, could induce essential growth dynamics with subsequent yield advantage. Field investigation on weed density and weed dry weight in drilled rice was conducted at the Agronomy Farm,  Dr. Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth, Dapoli (Maharashtra) in Kharif season to evaluate the effect of different herbicide and herbicide combination during 2012 to 2015. The lowest weed population and dry weight of grasses, sedges and broad-leaved weeds were recorded in weed free check followed by pendimethalin fb manual weeding and pendimethalin fb bispyribac-Na fb manual weeding. The treatment weedy check recorded the highest dry weight of weeds. The highest weed control efficiency (89.5%) and weed control index (95.0%) were recorded by weed free check followed by pendimethalin fb  manual weeding (84.4 and 92.8%) and pendimethalin fb bispyribac-Na fb manual weeding (76.6 and 89.9%).

Address: College of Agriculture, Dr. Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth, Dapoli 415 712
Email: pinjari94222@gmail.com
Herbicide combinations for weed control in direct-seeded rice
Author Name: M. Madhavi, M. Yakadri, P. Leela Rani and T. Ramprakash
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00096.4 Page No:369-371
Volume: 48 2016 Full length articles
Keywords:

Direct-seeded rice, Herbicides, Herbicide combinations, Weed biomass, Weeds

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted during Kharif season of 2012 and 2013 at College farm, Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agriculture University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad to assess the bioefficacy of different herbicides and their integration with cultural methods to control weeds and relative influence on profitability in direct dry-seeded rice cultivation. Integrated weed management (pendimethalin fb bispyribac-sodium followed by manual weeding at 45 days after sowing) gave highest net returns with higher B:C ratio during both the years of study. Among cultural methods, three hand weedings (weed free condition) and three mechanical weedings recorded lower weed biomass and higher weed control efficiency.

Address: Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agriculture University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabvad, Telangana 500 030
Email: weedhydap@yahoo.co.in
Interaction effect of nitrogen schedule and weed management on yield of direct-seeded rice
Author Name: Santosh Kumar and Ramesh Kumar Singh
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00097.6 Page No:372-377
Volume: 48 2016 Full length articles
Keywords:

Direct-seeded rice (DSR), Interaction effect, Nitrogen schedule, Nutrient depletion, Weed management, Yield

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted at Agricultural Research Farm, Institute of Agricultural sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, during rainy season of 2011 and 2012 to study the effect of nitrogen schedule and weed management in direct-seeded rice under irrigated condition. The experiment comprised of 24 treatments including all the combinations of four nitrogen schedule and six weed management. The results indicated that the minimum weed density, total weed dry weight and depletion of nutrient was recorded under nitrogen schedule of ¼ 2 WAS (week after sowing) + ¼ 4 WAS + ¼ 6 WAS+ ¼ 8 WAS, which was statistically at par with 1/3 2 WAS + 1/3 4 WAS + 1/3 6 WAS and significantly lower than other nitrogen schedules. The maximum yield was recorded under nitrogen schedule at ¼ 2 WAS + ¼ 4 WAS + ¼ 6 WAS + ¼ 8 WAS, which was statistically at par with 1/3 2 WAS + 1/3 4 WAS + 1/3 6 WAS and which was significantly superior over other treatments. Significantly lower weed density, dry weight and nutrient depletion were recorded under application of pendimethalin 1.0 kg/ha fb bispyribac + carfentrazone (25 + 20 g/ha) and pendimethalin 1.0 kg/ha fb bispyribac + ethoxysulfuron (25 +18 g/ha), which were significantly superior over other treatments.

Address: Department of Agronomy, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh 221 005
Email: santoshagro.nd@gmail.com
Weed management through tank mix and premix herbicides in wheat
Author Name: T. Sudha, Ramesh Babu and D.P. Biradar
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00098.8 Page No:378-380
Volume: 48 2016 Full length articles
Keywords:

Crop growth, Herbicide mixture, Post-emergent, Tank mix, Weed management, Wheat

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted during the Rabi (winter) season of 2014-15 and 2015-16 at Agricultural Research Station, Dharwad, Karnataka, India to evaluate the efficacy of tank mix herbicides and premix herbicides on weed control and its influence on productivity and profitability in irrigated wheat. Tank mix application of sulfosulfuron + metsulfuron 25 + 4 g/ha recorded significantly higher grain yield (4.31 t/ha) followed by clodinafop + metsulfuron 60 + 4 g/ha (4.15 t/ha) over weedy check. Biological yield was recorded significantly higher with clodinafop + metsulfuron 60 + 4 g/ha (12.21 t/ha) followed by sulfosulfuron + metsulfuron 25 + 4 g/ha (12.18 t/ha) over 2,4-D 2.5 kg/ha (10.68 t/ha) alone. The lower weed density, weed biomass and higher weed control efficiency was recorded with sulfosulfuron + metsulfuron 25 + 4 g/ha followed by clodinafop + metsulfuron 60 + 4 g/ha compared to weedy check. The more gross returns, net returns and benefit : cost ratio was obtained with sulfosulfuron + metsulfuron 25 + 4 g/ha over other weed management practices.

Address: Department of Agronomy, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, Karnataka 580 005
Email: sudhagron@gmail.com
Chemical weed management to increase productivity of wheat
Author Name: Balkaran Singh Sandhu and Nirmaljit Singh Dhaliwal
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00099.X Page No:381-383
Volume: 48 2016 Full length articles
Keywords:

B:C ratio, Chemical control, Herbicide, Weed density, Wheat, Yield

Abstract:

Pinoxaden 50 g/ha reduced P. minor weeds, significantly which was statistically at par with clodinafop 60 g/ha, sulfosulfuron 24.5 g/ha but significantly superior over pendimethalin 750 g/ha, isoproturon 937 g/ha. Numbers of effective tillers/m2 were higher among pinoxaden, clodinafop and sulfosulfuron treatment from the isoproturon, pendimethalin and unweeded check. All other herbicide treatments failed to produce any significant effect on the plant height, ear length, number of grains/ear and 1000- grain weight of wheat crop. Pinoxaden 50 g/ha produced higher average grain yield (4.9 t/ha), which was statistically at par with clodinafop 60 g/ha (4.80 t/ha), sulfosulfuron 24.5 g/ha (4.76 t/ha) but significant superior from the isoproturon 937 g/ha (4.52 t/ha), pendimethalin 750 g/ha (4.18 t/ha) and unweeded check (3.98 t/ha). The increase in yield was due to less weed competition among these treatments. Benifit: cost ratio was higher in case of clodinafop (1.83:1) followed by pinoxaden (1.82:1), sulfosulfuron (1.82:1) and isoproturon (1.70:1) and pendimethalin (1.46:1) but lower B:C ratio was obtained with unweeded check (1.45:1).

Address: Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Sri Muktsar Sahib, Punjab 152 026
Email: balkaransandhu@gmail.com
Wheat residue incorporation and weed management effect on weed seedbank and groundnut yield
Author Name: B.S. Gohil, R.K. Mathukia, H.N. Der, S.K. Chhodvadia and P.K. Chovatia
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00100.3 Page No:384-386
Volume: 48 2016 Full length articles
Keywords:

Arachis hypogaea, Economics, Residue management, Weed indices, Weed management, Weed seed-bank

Abstract:

The experiment was laid out in split plot design with three replications. The main plots comprised three residue management treatments and sub-plots comprised seven weed management treatments. Results revealed that significantly, highest pod yield (1.47 t/ha) with maximum net returns was recorded under the wheat residue incorporation (IC) fb soil solarization. Among the weed management, significantly highest pod yield (1.68 t/ha) and haulm yield (3.35 t/ha) was recorded under weed free and unweeded check registered significantly lowest pod yield (0.72 t/ha). Significantly lower number of total weeds at 30, 60 DAS and at harvest, dry weight of weeds and weed seedbank, lowest weed index and higher weed control index was recorded under the wheat residue incorporation fb soil solarization and weed free. Among the weed management, next superior treatments were pendimethalin fb imazamox + imazethapyr, pendimethalin fb IC and HW and suicidal germination fb tillage fb IC and HW in the both year of 2014 and 2015.

Address: Department of Agronomy, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh, Gujarat 362 001
Email: bhagirathgohil23@gmail.com
Increase in yield of winter maize + potato intercropping system by weed management
Author Name: Paramjeet Kour, Anil Kumar, Neetu Sharma, Jai Kumar and Amit Mahajan
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00101.5 Page No:387-389
Volume: 48 2016 Full length articles
Keywords:

Intercropping, Potato, Winter maize, Weed management, Weed smothering efficiency

Abstract:

A field experiment consisted of four intercropping systems, viz. winter maize (sole), potato (sole), winter maize + potato (additive series) and winter maize + potato (replacement series) and six sub-plot treatments comprised of weedy check, weed free, alachlor as pre-emergence at1.5 kg/ha, atrazine as pre-emergence at 0.5 kg/ha, early post-emergence alachlor at 2.0 kg/ha and atrazine as post-emergence at 0.75 kg/ha was laid out in split plot design with three replications. Results revealed that Medicago sativa, Anagallis arvensis and Cyperus rotundus recorded highest relative weed density and dry weed weight. The values of weed smothering efficiency were numerically higher in additive as compared to replacement treatment. Maximum yield loss was in weedy check in comparison to weed-free plots. Pre-emergence application of atrazine 0.5 kg/ha resulted in significantly lower dry-matter accumulation of all the weed species and highest weed-control efficiency which lead to significantly higher crop productivity.

Address: Division of Agronomy, Sher-E-Kashmir University of Agriculture and Technology, Jammu 180 001
Email: param_ashu@yahoo.com
Management of complex weed flora in maize with post-emergence herbicides
Author Name: Tarundeep Kaur, Simerjeet Kaur and M.S. Bhullar
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00102.7 Page No:390-393
Volume: 48 2016 Full length articles
Keywords:

Glyphosate, Grain yield, Herbicides, Maize, Post-emergence, Weed flora, Weeds

Abstract:

Some weed species are not controlled by atrazine where the farmers are using this herbicide year after year and different flushes of weeds in rainy season are among the major problems in maize growing areas of India. A field experiment was conducted during the crop growing seasons of 2012 and 2013 at Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana to evaluate the efficacy of glyphosate 41% SL against complex weed flora in maize. The treatments included glyphosate 41% SL 900, 1800 and 3600 g/ha applied as post-emergence at 2-4 leaf stage of weeds, atrazine 750 g/ha as pre-emergence, paraquat 24 SL 500 g/ha as post-emergence at 2-4 leaf stage of weeds, 2,4-D sodium salt 1000 g/ha as post-emergence at 2-4 leaf stage of weeds, weed free and unweeded control. The results revealed that non-selective herbicides paraquat at 500 g/ha and glyphosate at 900 and 1800 g/ha as a directed spray in maize as post-emergence at 2-4 leaf stage of weeds recorded effective control of grass and broad-leaf weeds during both the years and recorded grain yield at par with atrazine. 

Address: Department of Agronomy, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab 141 004
Email: tarundhaliwal@pau.edu
Energy budgeting of weed management in soybean
Author Name: Shyam Lal, R.P. Dubey, G.K. Das and Tarun Suryavanshi
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00103.9 Page No:394-399
Volume: 48 2016 Full length articles
Keywords:

Energy budget, Herbicide, Indices, Soybean, Weed management

Abstract:

An experiment was conducted at ICAR-Directorate of Weed Research, Jabalpur during Kharif season of 2015 and 2016 in order to assess the energy budgeting of weed management in soybean cultivation. Ten treatments comprising of pendimethalin (750 g/ha PE), pendimethalin (750 g/ha PE) fb imazethapyr (100 g/ha at 20 DAS), pendimethalin (750 g/ha PE) fb 1 HW (at 20 DAS), metribuzin (500 g/ha), metribuzin (500 g/ha) fb imazethapyr (100 g/ha at 20 DAS), metribuzin (500 g/ha PE) fb 1 HW (at 20 DAS), imazethapyr (100 g/ha at 20 DAS), imazethapyr (100 g/ha at 20 DAS) fb 1 HW (at 40 DAS), 2 HW (at 20 and 40 DAS) and unweeded check were laid-out in randomized block design with three replications. Sequential application of pendimethalin 750 g/ha PE fb imazethapyr 100 g/ha at 20 DAS was found to be the most energy efficient weed management strategy and had maximum value of total output energy (71.90 x 103 MJ/ha) and net energy returns (62.32 x 103 MJ/ha). Other parameters like energy ratio (7.50), energy profitability (6.50) and human energy profitability (164.27) were also higher under the same treatment whereas, it recorded less specific energy (11.53 103 MJ/ha) and energy intensity (0.48).

Address: ICAR-Directorate of Weed Research, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh 482 004
Email: shyamlalsahujnkvv@gmail.com
Productivity and economics of rainy season groundnut as influenced by weed management practices
Author Name: T.C. Poonia, P.K. Karwasara, R.K. Mathukia and Ajay Sharma
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00104.0 Page No:400-403
Volume: 48 2016 Full length articles
Keywords:

Economics, Groundnut, Pod yield, Weed control efficiency, Weed index, Weed management

Abstract:

Field experiment was conducted on medium black calcareous clayey soil at Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh during two consecutive seasons of 2013 and 2014 to study the influence of different weed management practices on productivity and economics of Kharif groundnut (cv. GG-20). Higher weed control efficiency (82.6%), herbicide efficiency index (74.1%), lower weed index (5.1%) and lesser monocot weed density were recorded with pendimethalin 0.9 kg/ha pre-emergence application (PE) followed by (fb) intercultivation (IC) and hand weeding (HW) at 40-45 days after seeding (DAS). Weed density of most dominated sedge weed species at 30 DAS, 60 DAS and at harvest were significantly lowered with application of pendimethalin 0.9 kg/ha PE fb imazethapyr 75 g/ha as post-emergence application (POE) at 25-30 DAS compared to other herbicides, which were 92.7, 93.5 and 93.0% less over the unweeded control, respectively. The same treatment also recorded the lowest weed dry biomass at harvest. Besides weed free, significantly the higher pod yield (1.75 t/ha) and net return (` 40,657/ha) and B: C ratio (2.38) were recorded with application of pendimethalin 0.9 kg/ha PE fb IC and HW at 40-45 DAS. No phytotoxicity symptoms has been observed with any of the herbicides applied to Kharif groundnut.

Address: Department of Agronomy, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh, Gujarat 362 001
Email: pooniatc@gmail.com
Use of herbicides against Orobanche in tomato and their residual effect on succeeding crop
Author Name: S.S. Punia, Anil Duhan, Dharam Bir Yadav and V.K. Sindhu
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00105.2 Page No:404-409
Volume: 48 2016 Full length articles
Keywords:

Orobanche aegyptiaca, Sulfosulfuron, Ethoxysulfuron, Tomato

Abstract:

Egyptian broomrape (Orobanche aegyptiaca) is the most troublesome root holoparasitic weed cause severe damage to tomatoes grown in Mewat and Bhiwani areas of Haryana. In the present study,  efficacy and selectivity of two sulfonylurea herbicides, viz. sulfosulfuron and ethoxysulfuron, neem cake, pendimethalin/metribuzin in conjunction with metalaxyl were tested in controlling on tomatoes grown under field conditions. Sulfosulfuron and ethoxysulfuron applied as post-emergence at 30, 60 and 90 DAT were more selective to tomato and controlled the parasite more effectively. Neem cake or metalaxyl were not found to inhibit growth of Orobanche aegyptiaca. No herbicide residues were observed in tomato fruits and soil at harvest. No residual carry over effect of these herbicides was observed on succeeding sorghum crop planted 2 months after harvest of tomato crop. It was concluded that post-emergence application of ethoxysulfuron at 25 g/ha at 30 DAT followed by at 50 g/ha or sulfosulfuron at 50 g/ha at 30 and 60 DAT, provided 85-90% control of Orobanche in tomato without any adverse effect on crop with yield increase of 46-58% as compared to untreated check.

Address: Department of Agronomy, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, Haryana 125 004
Email: puniasatbir@gmail.com
Assessment of ecological parameters of crofton weed along the road-side forests of Kumaun Himalaya
Author Name: Neelu Lodhiyal*, Shilpi Gupta, L.S. Lodhiyal, Bhawana Kapkoti and Nidhi Bhakuni
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00106.4 Page No:410-416
Volume: 48 2016 Full length articles
Keywords:

Forest, Roadside, Herbs, Eupatorium adenophorum, Species diversity, Biomass.

Abstract:

Present study deals with certain ecological attributes of crofton weed (Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng), an abnoxius invasive weed invading the road-side forests mixed with oaks and conifer. The average density of E. adenophorum shared 22.4 - 65.8% of total herb density which was almost higher in forest below the roadside. The biomass of E. adenophorum accounted for 84.0 - 99.8% of total herbaceous biomass in different forest sites. Study reveals the dominated impact of this species, which altered the composition, diversity and growth of herbs in forests, and also can change the habitat and disturb the ecology of native plants in the region. Therefore, needs of was felt to sustain the habitat of native species.

Address: Department of Botany, Kumaun University, Nainital, Uttarakhand 263 001
Email: neelulodhiyal@gmail.com
Assessment of genetic diversity among different biotypes of Physalis minima
Author Name: Saurabh Pagare, R.P. Mishra, Niraj Tripathi, M. Rathore and Bhumesh Kumar
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00107.6 Page No:417-420
Volume: 48 2016 Full length articles
Keywords:

Genetic diversity, Biotype, Physalis minima, RAPD, Similarity, Weed

Abstract:

Physalis minima is abundant weed species in India commonly found in non-cropped and crop areas during Kharif season. Fruits of this weed species has been reported for high nutritional and medicinal values. Despite, no study has been made, so far, for their molecular diversity analysis. In the present study, genetic diversity was assessed among a total of 17 biotypes of P. minima and 1 intermediate biotype (which exhibits floral characteristics of both P. minima and P. peruviana). Using 42 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers, a total of 224 bands were amplified among all studied biotypes. The band size of amplified fragments ranged from 100 - 2200 base pairs (bp). Out of 224 bands amplified, 52 were found to be monomorphic (23.2%) and remaining 172 were polymorphic (78.8%). Average number of bands per primer were 5.33 while average number of polymorphic bands per primer were 4.09. Cluster analysis grouped all biotypes into two groups. This is the first report on molecular diversity analysis among Physalis minima biotypes.

Address: ICAR-Directorate of Weed Research, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh 482 004
Email: kumarbhumesh@yahoo.com
Nanoemulsions formation from essential oil of Thymus capitatus and Majorana hortensis and their use in weed control
Author Name: Waleed M. Abd El Azim and Mohamed A. Balah
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00108.8 Page No:421-427
Volume: 48 2016 Full length articles
Keywords:

Allelopathy, Constituents, Macro emulsion, Nanoemulsion, Majorana hortensis L., Thymus capitatus L., Volatile oils

Abstract:

Essential oil formulation of Thymus capitatus L. (wild and cultivated thyme) and Majorana hortensis L. (marjoram) were investigated for allelopathic activity against Convolvulus arvensis and Setaria viridis seeds and seedling growth. Thymol, camphor, carvacrol, thujone, ä-terpinene, borneol, p-cymene, carvacrol, 1,8-cineole, caryophyllene oxide, á-humulene á-pinene, borneol, â-pinene, caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, linalol and phellandrene were detected by GC-Ms analysis from the oil contents. Macroemulsion (Mac-E) and nanoemulsion (Nano-E) were formulated from oil by adding co-surfactant and surfactant. These formulations were subjected to stability stresses and were tested for herbicidal activity against C. arvensis seeds germination and seedling growth. Nanoemulsion had particle size of 5.3, 12.0 and 22.1 nm for M. hortensis, T. capitatus wild and T. capitatus cultivated, respectively. Depending on ED50 M. hortensis (oils, Mac-E and Nano-E) exhibited strong allelopathic activity on C. arvensis, however, the lowest activity was achieved from T. capitatus cultivated followed by T. capitatus wild. The Nano-E exhibited pronounced post-emergence properties on (5-7 leaves stage) than others formulation on C. arvensis in greenhouse conditions. 

Address: Medicinal Plant Department, Desert Research Center, El-Mataria, Cairo, Egypt 11753
Email: mbaziz1974@gmail.com
Parthenium infestation and yield losses in agricultural crops
Author Name: S.A. Khan and K.R. Aneja
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00109.X Page No:428-431
Volume: 48 2016 Full length articles
Keywords:

Parthenium hysterophorus, Infestation, Agriculture crops, E. sativa, Yield loss

Abstract:

Parthenium hysterophorus L. (family Asteraceae), commonly known as Parthenium weed is known for its notorious role as an environmental, medical and agricultural hazard. The study was carried out to see the status of Parthenium infestation and its effect on yield losses caused to various cereals, oil, pulse, forage, sugar, vegetable, agroforestry and flowering crops cultivated in Haryana and some parts of Punjab, Uttar Pradesh and Delhi. Of the total 25 crops  surveyed in different seasons, Parthenium was recorded in three cereals viz. rice (Ory  za sativa), wheat (Triticum aestivum) and sorghum (Sorghum vulgare). However, it was not recorded in maize (Zea mays) and pearl millet (Pennisetum typhoides), the other commonly grown cereals in the States. Among different crops, the severe infestation of Parthenium was recorded in Saccharum officinarum (64.15%) followed by Eruca sativa (63.35%), Helianthus annuus (57.85%), Brassica campestris (57.63%), Trifolium alexandrinum (56.91%) and Populus sp. (54.63%). The vegetable crop infested by Parthenium weed included lady’s fingers (Abelmoschus esculentus), onion (Allium cepa), garlic (A. sativum), carrot (Daucus carota), cucumber (Cucurbita maxima), potato (Solanum tuberosum) and leguminous fodder Eegyptian clover (Trifolium alexandrinum). Maximum losse due to Parthenium  infestation was observed in E. sativa (55%) and sunflower (52.5%).

Address: Bhagwati College of Management and Technology, Siwaya, Meerut, Utter Pradesh 250 005
Email: k.shahalam@gmail.com
Bioefficacy of herbicides for weed management in transplanted rice
Author Name: V. Pratap Singh, S.P. Singh, A. Kumar, Kavita Satyawali, Neema Bisht and D.B. Singh
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00110.6 Page No:432-434
Volume: 48 2016 Short communications
Keywords:

Herbicide, Transplanted Rice, Weed control efficiency, Weed density, Yield

Abstract:

A field trial was conducted to evaluate different doses of herbicides for weed control in transplanted rice during Kharif season 2014 at Pantnagar. Experiment was laid out in a randomized block design with three replications. Results showed that all the herbicides were effective in reducing the total density of weeds at all the growth stages and enhancing the rice yield. Application of pretilachlor (SS) 1000 and 1500 g/ha applied as pre-emergence proved to be most effective followed by its lower doses applied at 750 g/ha in decreasing the density of weeds (30 and 60 DAT) than the other treatments. None of the herbicides found phytotoxic to rice crop.

Address: G.B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology Pantnagar, Uttarakhand 263 145
Email: vpratapsingh@rediffmail.com
Occurrence of fringe-rush in Kharif rice in Assam
Author Name: Rupam Sarmah, I.C. Barua, Panna Deb
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00111.8 Page No:435-439
Volume: 48 2016 Short communications
Keywords:

Kharif season, Fimbristylis, Transplanted rice, Weed

Abstract:

Among the sedges Fimbristylis are considered as very problematic weed in both irrigated and non irrigated rice ecosystems as it was reported to reduce rice yield by 9-43%. This work was undertaken, in 2014 and 2015, to assess the status of Fimbristylis species in transplanted Kharif rice at Jorhat district, Assam. Weed flora was surveyed following standard weed survey protocol. A taxonomic key for identification of these 5 taxa was developed for their easy reorganization in field condition. The moderately deep rooted problematic weed F. bisumbellata recorded in East Jorhat, Ujoni Majuli, Kaliapani, Titabar and Central Jorhat developmental blocks, as one of the most problematic weeds of upland autumn rice and other field crops of marshy situation during summer season. High frequency and population density of Fimbristylis species may be attributed to suitability of agro-climatic condition of Jorhat district for their growth and development and their occurrence has always caused yield reduction in rice due to higher magnitude of competition for nutrient and space in addition to its allelopathic effect on rice.  

Address: Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Assam University, Silchar, Assam 788 011
Email: rupam1915@gmail.com
Bio-efficacy of post-emergence herbicides in transplanted rice
Author Name: Rathod Nilesh Dayaram, Elizabeth K Syriac and Sheeja K Raj
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00112.X Page No:440-441
Volume: 48 2016 Short communications
Keywords:

Bio-efficacy, Post-emergence herbicides, Transplanted rice

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted to assess the bio efficacy of two new generation post emergence herbicides, viz. fenoxaprop-p-ethyl and carfentrazone            ethyl in transplanted rice along with bispyribac-sodium, hand weeding twice and weedy check. The weed flora was dominated by broad-leaf weeds, followed by sedges and grasses. The lowest total weed density and weed dry weight, the highest weed control efficiency, net returns and B: C ratio, were recorded in carfentazone-ethyl 25 g/ha, which was at  par with its lower dose (20 g/ha).

Address: College of Agriculture, (KAU) Vellayani, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 522
Email: elizabethsyriac59@gmail.com
Impact of different herbicides and their combinations on production economics of winter rice in West Bengal
Author Name: S.K. Sarkar, B.C. Patra, K. Jana and K. Ghosh
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00113.1 Page No:442-444
Volume: 48 2016 Short communications
Keywords:

B:C ratio, Chemical control, Economics, Hand weeding, Winter rice, Weed management

Abstract:

Hand weeding twice at 20 and 40 days after transplanting (DAT) gave best results in reducing both weed density and biomass and ultimately increased the grain (4.53 t/ha) and straw yield (5.80 t/ha). Next highest grain (4.20 t/ha) and straw yield (5.57 t/ha) was obtained with bensulfuron-methyl + pretilachlor (granules) 10 kg/ha as pre-emergence + one hand weeding at 40 DAT treatment followed by combined herbicidal treatment bensulfuron-methyl + pretilachlor (granules) 10 kg/ha as PE + bispyribac-sodium 25 g/ha as post emergent gave grain yield 4.17 t/ha and straw yield 5.53 t/ha. Considering the benefit: cost ratio, the highest value (1.92) was obtained with the performance of bensulfuron-methyl + pretilachlor as PE + metsulfuron-methyl + chlorimuron-ethyl as POE.

Address: Department of Agronomy, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Kalyani, West Bengal 741 235
Email: sandiptakumarsarkar16@gmail.com
Effect of weed management practices on productivity of wheat
Author Name: Pham Trung Kien, J.X. Massey, S.L. Mundra and Sontara Kalita
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00114.3 Page No:445-446
Volume: 48 2016 Short communications
Keywords:

Herbicides, Wheat, Weed management

Abstract:

Application mixture of metsulfuron 3 g/ha + sulfosulfuron 20 g/ha as post-emergence spray (35 DAS) was found best in controlling grassy and broad-leaf weeds and recorded the highest yield amongst all the weed management treatments with the 47.2% increase in grain yield of wheat as compared to weedy check. 

Address: Rajasthan College of Agriculture, Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology Udaipur, Rajasthan 313 001
Email: sontara.kalita101@gmail.com
Pre- and post-emergence herbicides for weed management in finger millet
Author Name: Afsari Banu, P.S. Fathima, G.R. Denesh and C.M. Sunil
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00115.5 Page No:447-449
Volume: 48 2016 Short communications
Keywords:

Finger millet, Herbicides, Pre- and post-emergence 

Abstract:

Significantly higher grain yield and straw yield (4.29 and 6.45 t/ha, respectively), was recorded with pre-emergence application of bensulfuron-methyl (0.6% G) + pretilachlor (6.0% G) at 1.0 kg/ha as compared to pre-emergence application of butachlor 50 EC at 0.75 kg/ha (3.19 and 4.63 t/ha, respectively) and un-weeded check (1.54 and 2.24 t/ha, respectively). Similar trend was also observed with respect to the growth and yield parameters of fingermillet.

Address: Department of Agronomy, University of Agricultura lSciences, GKVK, Bengaluru, Karnataka 571 405
Email: psfathimaiq@gmail.com
Evaluation of pre- and post-emergence herbicides in groundnut
Author Name: J.P. Dixit, B.S. Kasana and Y.K. Singh
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00116.7 Page No:450-452
Volume: 48 2016 Short communications
Keywords:

B:C ratio, Herbicides, Net returns, Pod yield 

Abstract:

The experiment comprised 7 treatments i.e. un weeded control, weed free check, pendimethalin 1.0 kg/ha (PE) + 1 hand weeding at 30 DAS, post emergence quizalofop-ethyl 50 g/ha at 20 DAS, post-emergence imazathypyr 75 g/ha at 20 DAS pre-emergence pendimethalin 1.0 kg/ha + post-emergence quizalofop-ethyl 50 g/ha at 20 DAS and pre emergence pendimethalin 1.0 kg/ha + post emergence imazathypyr 75 g/ha  at 20 DAS. The experiment was set in a randomized-complete block design (RCBD) with 3 replications, in fixed plots and the crop variety ‘JGN-3’ was sown 100 kg/ha during first week of July with spacing of 30 x 10 cm. Application of pendimethalin 1.0 kg/ha + imazathypyr 75 g/ha (750 ml/ha) at 20 DAS gave comparable pod yield (1.21 t/ha) and maximum net returns on per rupee invested. The results confined that the use of pre and post emergence herbicides in combination to groundnut crop is a practically efficient and economically feasible method to control weeds and fetch higher returns.

Address: Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, RVSKVV, Gwalior Madhya Pradesh 474 002
Email: brajrajbsk2007@rediffmail.com
Efficacy of different herbicides for weed control in soybean
Author Name: Pramendra Singh Parmar, Namrata Jain, Devendra and Ravindra Solanki
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00117.9 Page No:453-454
Volume: 48 2016 Short communications
Keywords:

Alachlor, Hand weeding, Imazethapyr, Imazamox, Pendimethalin, Soybean Quizalofop-ethyl

Abstract:

The seed yield of soybean was significantly higher under two hand weeding at 20 and 40 DAS followed by imazethapyr + imazamox, quizalofop-ethyl fb chlorimuron-ethyl and chlorimuron-ethyl than pre-plant incorporation of glyphosate, pre-emergence application of pendimethalin and alachlor and post-emergence application of quizalofop-ethyl and weedy check. Uncontrolled weeds in weedy check resulted yield loss of 52.25% in soybean. 

Address: College of Agriculture, Tikamgarh, Madhya Pradesh 472 001
Email: dpatil889@gmail.com
Weed management in sesame with sequential application of herbicides
Author Name: K. Sathish Babu, D. Subramanyam, V. Sumathi and V. Umamahesh
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00118.0 Page No:455-457
Volume: 48 2016 Short communications
Keywords:

Economics, Herbicides, Sesame, Sequential, Weed density, Weed management

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted at S.V. Agricultural College Farm, Tirupati during summer, 2015 in a randomized block design with eleven weed management practices consisting of pre-emergence application of pendimethalin 750 g/ha, oxyfluorfen 75 g/ha, oxadiargyl 75 g/ha alone and in combination with post-emergence application of quizalofop 50     g/ha and propaquizafop 60 g/ha at 20 DAS, two hand weedings and unweeded check. The lowest density and dry weight of weeds with higher weed control efficiency, higher stature of yield components and seed yield of broadcasted sesame were registered with two hand weedings at 20 and 40 DAS. The next best weed management practice for broad spectrum weed control and increased seed yield of broadcasted sesame was with pre-emergence application of oxyfluorfen 75 g/ha + quizalofop 50 g/ha applied at 20 DAS. Pre-emergence application of oxadiargyl 75 g/ha alone or in combination with post-emergence herbicides failed to control the weeds as the pre-emergence application of oxadiargyl recorded phytotoxicity rating of 4.0 on sesame seedlings in 0-10 scale in sandy loam soils.

Address: Department of Agronomy, S.V. Agricultural College, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh 517 502
Email: subbuagro37@gmail.com
Weed dynamics and weed control efficiency under different weed management practices for increased productivity of mustard
Author Name: Sumitra Devi Bamboriya, M.K. Kaushik, Shanti Devi Bamboriya and R.C. Tiwari
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00119.2 Page No:458-459
Volume: 48 2016 Short communications
Keywords:

Herbicides, Mustard, Post-emergence, Weed dynamics, Weed management

Abstract:

The lowest weed density and weed dry weight, and highest weed control efficiency was recorded in two hand weeding at 20 and 40 DAS. However, it was also noticed that herbicides along with one hand hoeing were equally good in terms of suppressing weed population at 60 DAS. The maximum seed yield was observed under two hand weeding at 20 and 40 DAS. 

Address: Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology, Udaipur, Rajasthan 313 001
Email: sumisaani@gmail.com
Biocontrol efficiency of Zygogramma bicolorata at different growth stages of Parthenium hysterophorus
Author Name: Asad Shabbir, Sheema Sadia and Iram Mujahid
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00120.9 Page No:460-463
Volume: 48 2016 Short communications
Keywords:

Biocontrol efficiency, Biological control,  Parthenium,  Zygogramma bicolorata

Abstract:

Parthenium hysterophorus L. (Asteraceae) commonly known as Parthenium weed, is a highly invasive weed that is considered as environmental, medical, and agricultural hazard. The objectives of this study was to test the impact of Zygogramma bicolorata Pallister (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a classical biocontrol agent, in different ratios (1-pair, 2-pairs and 3-pairs) at three different growth stages (flowering, pre-flowering and young) of Parthenium weed to estimate the effectiveness of this agent in reducing its growth and reproduction potential. The damage (defoliation %) recorded was between 44-57% at flowering, 40-54% at pre-flowering and 100% at young stage of the weed. The defoliation significantly reduced the weed biomass, height and seed production. The damage inflicted by Z. bicolorata was more pronounced when it was applied in higher density and at early growth stages of the weed.

Address: Department of Botany, University of the Punjab, Quaid-e-Azam Campus, Lahore, Pakistan 54590
Email: assadshabbir@yahoo.com
Herbicide tolerance of Rabi sorghum varieties and germplasm
Author Name: J.S. Mishra, S.S. Rao, M. Elangovan and P. Kiran Babu
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00121.0 Page No:464-469
Volume: 48 2016 Short communications
Keywords:

Carfentrazone-ethyl, Germplasm, Herbicide tolerance, Metsulfuron-methyl, Sorghum

Abstract:

Field experiment was conducted during Rabi 2010-11 at the Indian Institute of Millets Research, Hyderabad (Telangana) to screen the Rabi sorghum germplasm and varieties tolerant to quizalofop-ethyl, metsulfuron-methyl and carfentrazone-ethyl herbicides. The crop was infested mainly with Parthenium hysterophorus (43.36%), Cyperus rotundus (19.91%), Celosia argentea (20.38%), Euphorbia geniculata (12.42%) and others (E. hirta and Digitaria sanguinalis) (3.93%). Of the 68 genotypes evaluated for herbicide tolerance, none was tolerant to quizalofop-ethyl. ‘Phule Maulee’, ‘PEC 22’, ‘PEC 2’, ‘PEC 5’, ‘PEC 15’, ‘EP 97’, ‘EP 105’, ‘EC 34’, ‘EP 117’, ‘EP 78’, ‘EP 59’, ‘EP 82’, and ‘EP 57’ showed tolerance to metsulfuron-methyl (3.27 - 48.32% increase in grain yield over control) with very good control of all broad-leaved weeds. The promising genotypes showed tolerance to both metsulfuron and carfentrazone were ‘PEC 2’, ‘PEC 5’, ‘EP 97’, ‘EP 105’ and ‘EC 34’. Carfentrazone-ethyl, however, showed initial leaf phytotoxicity but crop recovered within 15 days of herbicide application.

Address: Indian Institute of Millets Research, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, Telangana 500 030
Email: jsmishra31@gmail.com
Quantitative estimation of total phenols in Calyptocarpus vialis - An emerging weed in Karnataka
Author Name: Kavitha Sagar
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00122.2 Page No:470-472
Volume: 48 2016 Short communications
Keywords:

Aggressive, Calyptocarpus vialis, Karnataka, Phytochemical, Total Phenols

Abstract:

Preliminary phytochemical analysis and quantitative estimation of total phenols in root, stem and leaves of Calyptocarpus vialis Less. (Asteraceae) were done using different solvents, viz. methanol, ethyl acetate, aqueous and chloroform. In all the solvent extracts of leaves, there was presence of phenols, glycosides, steroids, tannins and terpenoids. For quantitative estimations, different concentrations of various solvent extracts were prepared, viz. 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10 and 15 mg/ml. Quantitative estimation of total phenols showed that ethyl acetate extract in leaves  contained high phenolic contents followed by chloroform, aqueous and methanol extracts. In stem and root, high phenolic content was found in methanol extracts at high concentrations of the plant sample. This seems to be the first report from India.

Address: Botanical Garden & Herbarium, UAS, GKVK, Bengaluru, Karnataka 560 065
Email: kavcsa@gmail.com