Prin ISSN 0253-8040
Online ISSN 0974-8164

Indian Journal of

Weed Science

Editorial board


Dr. Sushilkumar
Directorate of Weed Research
Maharajpur, Adhartal, Jabalpur - 482004 (MP), INDIA
Mobile - +91 9425186747
Email- editorisws@gmail
Dr. A.N. Rao
Hydarabad, INDIA
Mobile Number: +91 9440372165
Email: adusumilli.narayanarao@gmail.com

Dr.J.S. Mishra
Patna, INDIA
Mobile - +91 9494240904
Email- jsmishra31@gmail.com

Editors

Dr. M.D. Reddy, (Hyderabad)
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Dr. N. Prabhakaran (Coimbatore)
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Dr. Gulshan Mahajan (Ludhiana)
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Email- mahajangulshan@rediffmail.com
Dr. Ashok Yadav (Patna)
Mobile Number: +91 9416995523
Email: aky444@gmail.com
Dr. Suresh Gautam (Himachal Pradesh)
Mobile - +91 9418150836
Email- skg_63@yahoo.com
Dr. C. Sarthambal (Jabalpur)
Mobile - +91 9943446016
Email- saratha6@gmail.com
Dr. P. Janaki (Coimbatore)
Mobile Number: 9443936160
Email: janakibalamurugan@rediffmail.com
Dr. V.S.G.R. Naidu (Rajahmundry)
Mobile - +91 8790819002
Email- naidudwsr@gmail.comm
Dr. T. Ram Prakash (Hyderabad)
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Dr. T.K. Das (New Delhi)
Mobile Number: 9868128266
Email: tkdas64@gmail.com
Dr. K.A. Gopinath (Hyderabad)
Mobile - +91 9177506238
Email- gopinath@crida.in
Dr. Narendra Kumar (Kanpur)
Mobile - +91 9473929876
Email- nkumar.icar@gmail.com
Allelochemicals in Parthenium in response to biological activity and the environment
Author Name: D.K. Pandey
DOI:                  IJWS-2009-41-3&4 Supplymentary-1 Page No:111-123
Volume: 41 2009 Review article
Keywords:

Allelopathy, Allelochemicals, Antifungal, Antimicrobial, Congress grass, Contact dermatitis, Cytotoxic, Environment, Insecticidal, Flavonoids, Growth inhibition, Growth regulation, Herbicidal activity, Microbes and protozoa, Parthenium, Parthenium hysterophorus, Phenolics, Pseudoguaianolides, Rhinitis, Skin allergy, Toxicity to animals, Toxicity to plants

Abstract:

Parthenium (Parthenium hysterophorus L.), a member of Asteraceae, is an obnoxious national weed of wide ecological niches including waste land and agroecosystems. The weed has phenolics, flavonoids, alkaloids, pseudoguaianolides and oils, many of which have been implicated in allelopathy. The phenolics include caffeic acid, vanillic acid, ferulic acid, chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid and p-hydroxy benzoic acid. The plant and its parts owe various properties involving allelopathy, phytotoxicity, herbicidal activity, growth regulation / inhibition, including on nitrification and nitrifying bacteria. Among flavonoids are quercetagetin-3, 7-dimethyl ether, 6-hydroxy kempferol-3, 7-dimethyl ether, kaempferol 3-O-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-glucoside, kaempferol-3-O-glucoarabinoside, and lignan (+) syringaresinol. They confer antioxidant activities, scavenging effects on activated carcinogens and mutagens, action on cell cycle progression, altered gene expression, UV-B protection in plants, warding off microbial infections, and protection of plants from herbivores, etc. The alkaloids have been detected but yet to be identified. The pseudoguaianolides identified from the species include parthenin, anhydroparthenin, ambrosin, coronopillin, damsin, hymanin, 8-b-hydroxyparthenin, 2b-hydroxycoronopilin, tetraneurin-A, ambrosanolides, charminarone, 8-b-acetoxyhysterone C, deacetyltetraneurin A, hysterin, hysterone E, hysterone D, conchasin A, acetylated pseudoguaianolides, scopoletin (belongs to coumarin), and dihydroxyparthenin. They have diverse activities like cytotoxic, antitumor, antibacterial, antifungal, phytotoxic, antiprotozoan, active against human and animal parasites (including intermediate hosts), insecticidal, moluscicidal, vertebrate feeding deterrence and toxicity, allergic contact dermatitis, mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation inhibition, allelopathic, anti-inflammatory, and antimalarial. The oils identified from the species include a-pinene, camphene, b-pinene, sabinene, b-myrcene, b-terpene, limolene, b-ocimene, ocimene, p-cymene, linalool, caryophyllene, humulene, terpinene-4-ol and many unidentified compounds. They have been shown to be antifungal, antibacterial, antimicrobial, virucidal, antiparasitical, insecticidal, medicinal, cytotoxic and many find use in cosmetics. Information on role of specific constituents in allelopathic interaction of the species in natural ecosystems still appears to be scarce. Bioherbicidal potential of most of the constituents has not been investigated. These are attractive areas with potential of facilitating development of newer herbicides or pesticides.

Address: Physiology Section, Directorate of Weed Science Research, Maharajpur, Jabalpur (Madhya Pradesh)
Email: daya-pandey@hotmail.com
Management of late emerging weeds in irrigated groundnut
Author Name: P. Kanagam and C.R. Chinnamuthu
DOI:                  IJWS-2009-41-3&4 Supplymentary-2 Page No:124-132
Volume: 41 2009 Full length articles
Keywords:

Groundnut, Late emerging weeds, Pre-emergence, Metolachlor, Fluchloralin

Abstract:

Field experiments were conducted during kharif (June-July), 2002, and late rabi (December-January), 2003 on sandy loam soils of Coimbatore to manage the late emerging weeds in irrigated groundnut. In screening trial, herbicides, metolachlor and fluchloralin were tested at four different levels viz., 0.75, 1.00, 1.25 and 1.50 kg/ha. The experimental fields were dominated by Setaria verticillata in grasses, Cyperus rotundus in sedges and Trianthema portulacastrum in broad-leaved weeds. Higher levels of herbicide dose recorded more weed control efficiency, yield and yield attributes of groundnut irrespective of the herbicides without any adverse effect on the crop. Among the levels, 1.00 kg/ha produced similar results with that of 1.25 or 1.50 kg/ha. Sequential applications of metolachlor as pre emergence at sowing followed by one on 40 DAS preceded with earthing up reduced the weed density, dry matter accumulation and nutrient removal by weeds significantly and comparable with weed free check. Initial reduction on the load of Rhizobium gained its original strength at later stages of crop growth.

Address: Department of Agronomy, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore (Tamil Nadu)
Email: crchinnamuthu@yahoo.com
Integrated weed management in fenugreek
Author Name: O.L. Sharma
DOI:                  IJWS-2009-41-3&4 Supplymentary-3 Page No:133-135
Volume: 41 2009 Full length articles
Keywords:

Fenugreek , Seed yield, Fluchloralin, Pendimethalin, Oxyfluorfen

Abstract:

Field experiments were conducted during rabi season in four consecutive years (2003-04 to 2006-07) to study the effect of integrated weed management practices on seed yield of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.). Results revealed that two hand weedings at 20 and 40 days after sowing (DAS) recorded minimum dry weight of both monocot and dicot weeds with the highest weed control efficiency (63.0%). Among the herbicides, pre planting and incorporation of fluchloralin 0.75 kg/ha + one hand weeding at 30 DAS was most effective in reducing the dry weight of both monocot and dicot weeds at harvesting. It had positive impact on yield attributes resulted in to the highest seed yield (1660 kg/ha) with net monetary returns of Rs 16904/ha and maximum weed control efficiency (54.5%). Pre-emergence application of pendimethalin 0.75 kg/ha + one hand weeding at 30 DAS and two hand weedings at 20 and 40 DAS were at par to former with regard to seed yields

Address: Agricultural Research Station, Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner (Rajasthan)
Email: sharma_ol@rediffmail.com
Derivation of grassy weed intensity maps in wheat using spatial data with GIS in the central districts of Punjab
Author Name: Ramanjit Kaur, R.K. Mahey, J. Mukherjee1 and Anil Sood
DOI:                  IJWS-2009-41-3&4 Supplymentary-4 Page No:136-141
Volume: 41 2009 Full length articles
Keywords:

Wheat, Phalaris minor, Avena ludoviciana, Weed intensity, Remote sensing and GIS

Abstract:

An experiment was conducted to generate weed intensity maps using spatial data with GIS and remote sensing in the central districts of Punjab, India. Remote sensing technologies are playing an increasingly important role in agricultural production. Because of their potential for high spatial and spectral resolution, satellite and aircraft images can contain detailed site specific information about conditions in agricultural fields. It can be used for monitoring crop growth, yield potential, soil conditions, weed intensity etc. For the commercial extension of site-specific herbicide application technology, rapid and cost effective methods for creating accurate weed maps are required. The objective of this research was to demonstrate the potential of optical airborne remote sensing in the detection of some specific weeds and their densities in wheat crop in the central districts of Punjab (India). The analysis of spectral and ground measurement was done to select wave bands (wavelength regions) suitable for distinguishing weed-infested and weed-free crop areas.

Address: Department of Agronomy, Agricultural Meteorology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana (Punjab)
Email: ramaan180103@yahoo.com
Effect of weed management and crop establishment methods on weed dynamics and productivity of rice
Author Name: Jai Kumar, Anil Kumar and B.C. Sharma
DOI:                  IJWS-2009-41-3&4 Supplymentary-5 Page No:142-147
Volume: 41 2009 Full length articles
Keywords:

Weed management, Crop establishment methods, Productivity, Rice

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted on sandy loam soil at Research Farm of Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences & Technology, Chatha, Jammu during the years 2006 and 2007 to study the effect of weed management and crop establishment methods on weed dynamics and grain yield of rice. The results revealed that among weed management methods, mechanical hoeing using conoweeder (at 15 and 30 Days after transplanting, (DAT) significantly reduced the total weed population and dry weight of weeds and recoded higher grain (4256 and 4393 kg/ha) and straw yields (5381 and 5677 kg/ha ) than weedy check , but was statistically at par with fenoxapropp- ethyl (0.06 kg/ha, 20 DAT) fb 1 HW at 30 DAT, followed by metsulfuron methyl fb chlorimuron ethyl (0.004 kg/ha, 20 DAT) fb 1 HW at 30 DAT, fenoxaprop-p-ethyl (0.06 kg/ha, 20 DAT) and metasulfuron methyl fb chlorimuron ethyl (0.004 kg/ha, 20 DAT). However, metsulfuron methyl fb chlorimuron ethyl (0.004 kg/ha) was found to be more effective against broad leaved weeds and very little to sedges, thus failed to control major grassy weeds during the experimentation. Among the establishment methods of rice, conventional and system of rice intensification (SRI) methods were at par with respect to effective tillers, panicle length, grains/panicle, 1000 grain weight, grain yield, straw yield and harvest index. Significantly highest and lowest grain yields were obtained in case of weed free (4662 and 4745 kg/ha) and weedy check (3075 and 3140 kg/ha) treatments, respectively during both the years

Address: Division of Agronomy, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences & Technology of Jammu (Jammu and Kashmir)
Email: anillau@gmail.com
Bioefficacy of pinoxaden against little seed canary grass in wheat and its residual effect on succeeding crops
Author Name: S.S. Punia and Dharambir Yadav
DOI:                  IJWS-2009-41-3&4 Supplymentary-6 Page No:148-153
Volume: 41 2009 Full length articles
Keywords:

Pinoxaden, Clodinafop, Sulfosulfuron, Resistant, Herbicide carry over, Phalaris minor, Wheat.

Abstract:

To study the bioefficacy and phytotoxicity of new herbicide pinoxaden against isoproturon resistant population of Phalaris minor in wheat and its residual effect on succeeding rice and sorghum crops, field experiments were conducted at Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar during winter season of 2005 and 2006 and at Barhi (Ambala) and Chanarthal (Kurukshetra) during rabi 2007-08 and 2008-09. Little seed canary grass (Phalaris minor Retz.), the dominant grassy weed was very effectively controlled by post emergence (35 DAS) application of pinoxaden at 45-50 g/ha. At Hisar, pinoxaden at 45 g/ha provided 98.7 and 100% control of P. minor during 2005 and 2006, respectively, which was at par with clodinafop at 60 g/ha and sulfosulfuron and better than the performance of fenoxaprop. Grain yield of wheat with use of pinoxaden at 45 g/ha was 4450 and 4650 kg/ha during first and second year of experimentation, which was significantly higher than its lower doses of 35 and 40 g/ha but statistically at par with its higher dose of 50g/ha and already recommended herbicides clodinafop-propargyl and sulfosulfuron. Post emergence use of pinoxaden at 50 g/ha was able to control clodinafop resistant population of P. minor at farmers fields in Barhi (Ambala) and Chanarthal ( Kurukshetra). Results of 13 and 20 on farm trials conducted during 2007-08 and 2008-09,respectively in various districts of state revealed that pinoxaden at 50 g/ha gave 10.6 and 9.6% higher grain yield over recommended clodinafop at 60 g/ha. No carry over effect of this herbicide at any of doses tested was observed on succeeding sorghum and rice crops grown in succession after wheat

Address: Department of Agronomy, CCS HAU, Hisar (Haryana)
Email: jagir@hau.ernet.in
Economic threshold levels of little seed canary grass in wheat in north Bihar
Author Name: N.K. Sinha, D. Singh and D.K. Roy
DOI:                  IJWS-2009-41-3&4 Supplymentary-7 Page No:154-156
Volume: 41 2009 Full length articles
Keywords:

Economic threshold level, Phalaris minor, Wheat

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted under All India Coordinated Research Programme on Weed Control at Crop Research Centre of Rajendra Agricultural University, Bihar, Pusa, Samastipur during rabi season of 2004-05 and 2005-06 in calcareous sandy loam soil with an aim to evaluate the effect of different density of Phalaris minor on growth and yield of wheat. Higher density of Phalaris minor retrogressively affected plant height, spike length, crop biomass and grain yield of wheat. The level of reduction in wheat yield was 12 to 66% corresponding to an increase in density of Phalaris minor from 25 to 150/m2. The present data showed the need for adoption of suitable weed management practices in wheat field with the density of Phalaris minor at 25/m2 and above.

Address: Rajendra Agricultural University, Pusa, Samastipur (Bihar)
Email: nksinha.cazri@gmail.com
Impact of Sesbania brown manuring on weeds and performance of direct seeded rice
Author Name: V.C. Dhyani, V. Pratap Singh, S.P. Singh, Abnish Kumar and Neeta Tripathi
DOI:                  IJWS-2009-41-3&4 Supplymentary-8 Page No:157-159
Volume: 41 2009 Full length articles
Keywords:

Brown manuring, Sesbania, Weeds, Direct seeded rice

Abstract:

A field experiment with ten treatments in randomized block design was conducted at Pantnagar in the year 2005-06 and 2006-07 to evaluate effect of Sesbania brown manuring on rice weeds and its yield. Rice shoot dry weight was related to weed dry weight at 28 days of crop stage. There was not significant difference in all those treatment where pendimethalin was applied with respect to weed dry weight and rice shoot weight. Row seeding resulted in lesser weed dry weight and higher rice shoot dry weight, however, treatment difference was insignificant. Weed dry weight continued to increase up to 84 days stage and then it declined at harvest in the weedy plot. At 56 DAS and subsequent stages dry weight was less in all those treatments where hand weeding was done at 30 DAS than those treatments where it was not done.

Address: Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar (Uttarakhand)
Email: dhyanivipin1@rediffmail.com
Growth and productivity of direct seeded upland rainfed rice as influenced by integrated weed management
Author Name: Shushama Majhi, R. Thakur, R.R. Upasani, M.K. Singh and S.K. Pal
DOI:                  IJWS-2009-41-3&4 Supplymentary-9 Page No:160-162
Volume: 41 2009 Full length articles
Keywords:

Integrated weed management, Leaf area index, Crop growth rate, Productivity, Upland rice

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted during kharif seasons of 2007 and 2008 at the Birsa Agricultural University farm, Ranchi on sandy loam soil to study the effect of integrated weed management on growth and productivity of direct seeded upland rainfed rice. Results showed that Sesbania intercropped and incorporated at 4 weeks after sowing + pendimethalin 1kg/ha recorded higher leaf area index, crop growth rate, effective tillers (124/m2), maximum grains/panicle (77) and bolder 1000-grain (24.3 g). The treatment produced higher grain yield (2091 kg/ha) and grain production rate (66.0 kg/ha/day) of direct seeded upland rice in comparison to other integrated weed management treatments.

Address: Department of Agronomy, Birsa Agricultural University, Ranchi (Jharkhand)
Email: upasani.ravikant@gmail.com
Utilization of Parthenium and water hyacinth as a bio-nutrient source in rice crop
Author Name: D.K. Roy, D. Singh, N.K. Sinha and D.N. Pandey
DOI:                  IJWS-2009-41-3&4 Supplymentary-10 Page No:163-166
Volume: 41 2009 Full length articles
Keywords:

Weed utility, Rice Productivity, Soil fertility, FYM, Vermicompost, Poultry manure

Abstract:

A field experiment was carried out at Rajendra Agricultural University, Pusa, Samastipur, Bihar during kharif seasons from 2004 to 2006 to assess the weed utility as a bio-nutrient source in rice cultivation. The results revealed that among organic sources, the use of water hyacinth (2.5 t/ha) FYM (5 t/ha) recorded the maximum growth, yield attributes and grain and straw yields of rice which was closely followed by water hyacinth (2.5 t/ha) + vermicompost (1 t/ha), Parthenium (2.5 t/ha) + vermicompost (1 t/ha), Parthenium (2.5 t/ha) + FYM (5 t/ha) and water hyacinth (2.5 t/ha) + poultry manure (1 t/ha). The maximum net return (Rs 11148/ha) and benefit: cost ratio (1.61:1) were also recorded by water hyacinth (2.5 t/ha) + FYM (5 t/ha). The highest available N (185.67 kg/ha), available P (26.38 kg/ha) and exchangeable K (525.6 kg/ha) were recorded by water hyacinth (2.5 t/ha) + FYM (5 t/ha). Water hyacinth or Parthenium either alone or in combination with other organic sources had a better utility as a bio-nutrient source. Among the inorganic levels, application of 100%, recommonded dose of fertilizer (RDF) produced significantly higher grain and straw yields as compared to other nutrient levels. Application of full dose of recommended NPK recorded significantly higher net return (Rs 10974 /ha) over 50% RDF which was closely followed by 75% RDF. Full dose of recommended NPK application had significant and beneficial effect on rice grain yield and improved the soil NPK status. The interaction effects between organic sources and inorganic levels were found to be non-significant

Address: Department of Agronomy, Rajendra Agricultural University, Pusa, Samastipur (Bihar) E-mail : dr_dhirendra_krroy@yahoo.com
Email:
Identification of critical stages of weed competition and its effect on banana
Author Name: P. Prameela, Rema Menon and A. Suma
DOI:                  IJWS-2009-41-3&4 Supplymentary-11 Page No:167-169
Volume: 41 2009 Full length articles
Keywords:

Banana, Critical stages, Weed competition

Abstract:

An experiment was conducted to study the effect of the most critical stage of weed competition in banana. The treatments consisted of different weeding schedules as well as an unweeded control. It was found that early vegetative phase of growth of banana especially up to 3rd/6th months after planting (MAP) and bunch development stages are the critical stages of banana at which yield is affected. Cost benefit ratio indicated that frequent weeding, during first three MAP as well as during 6 to 9 MAP is less economic compared to other treatments

Address: Banana Research Station, Kannara, Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur
Email: prameelaagron66@yahoo.com
Efficacy of diclosulam on weeds and yield of soybean
Author Name: S.P. Singh, V. Pratap Singh, R.C. Nainwal, Neeta Tripathi and A. Kumar
DOI:                  IJWS-2009-41-3&4 Supplymentary-12 Page No:170-173
Volume: 41 2009 Full length articles
Keywords:

Chemical control, Diclosulam, Soybean

Abstract:

The experiment was conducted during kharif 2007 and 2008 to evaluate the bio-efficacy of diclosulam at different doses in soybean crop at G.B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar. Eight treatments comprising diclosulam (84 WDG) at 18, 22 and 26 g/ha, pendimethalin (30 EC) and fluchloralin (45 EC) 1000 g/ha, two hand weeding (30 and 45 DAS), weed free and weedy treatments were used in the experimental plots. Diclosulam at higher doses (22 and 26 g/ha) were found effective against grassy and broad leaf weeds at different evaluation timings as it recorded lower weed population followed by weed free, hand weeding and application of diclosulam 18 g/ha and rest of the herbicides. Diclosulam applied at 22 and 26 g/ha showed higher weed control efficiency as compared to other herbicidal treatments at all the stages of crop growth, due to broad spectrum weed control and hence higher value for all the characters of yield attributes and grain yield. Weedy plots recorded 57% lower grain yield as compared to weed-free treatments. Application of diclosulam at 22 and 26 g/ha produced maximum grain yield which was similar to yield found in weed free treatment during both the years

Address: Department of Agronomy, GBPUAT, Pantnagar U.S. Nagar (Uttarakhand)
Email: singhsp1975@rediffmail.com
Weed management in Kodo millet under rain-fed condition
Author Name: Adikant Pradhan and H.L. Sonboir
DOI:                  IJWS-2009-41-3&4 Supplymentary-13 Page No:174-178
Volume: 41 2009 Full length articles
Keywords:

Isoproturon, Kodo millet, Weed management

Abstract:

An experiment was conducted on Kodo millet during kharif seasons of 2006, 2007 and 2008 at S.G. College of Agriculture and Research Station, Jagdalpur in randomized block design with twelve treatments. Predominant weeds found in weedy check plots were Echinochloa colona, Digitaria sanguinalis Eleusine indica, Celosia argentea, Commelina benghalensis and Euphorbia geniculata. The maximum weed population of broad leaved (224, 420 and 436/m2) and narrow leaved (920, 862 and 963/m2) were found in weedy check in 2006, 2007 and 2008 while dry matter were 278, 267 and 270 and 517, 348 and 325g/m2 for broad and narrow leaved weeds, respectively. Pre-emergence spray of isoproturon 0.5 kg/ha + two inter-cultivations attained significantly higher plant height (60.28, 62.63 and 59.42 cm), number of tillers/plant (4.42, 3.57 and 4.27), number of racemes/plant (6.27, 6.23 and 6.00) and 1000 grain weight (6.30, 6.60 and 6.45g) in Kodo millet over other treatments in consecutive years

Address: S.G. College of Agriculture and Research Station, Jagdalpur (Chhattisgarh)
Email: adi_197753@rediffmail.com
Weed flora of garlic in Haryana
Author Name: S.S. Punia, Dharambir Yadav and Baldev Kamboj
DOI:                  IJWS-2009-41-3&4 Supplymentary-14 Page No:179-181
Volume: 41 2009 Full length articles
Keywords:

Garlic, weed flora, Chenopodium album, Anagallis arvensis, Chenopodium murale Phalaris minor, Poa annua

Abstract:

Ecological survey of weeds associated with garlic crop in Karnal, Ambala, Yamuna Nagar and Kurukshetra districts in north-eastern zone and Bhiwani and Hisar in south-western zone of Haryana state was conducted during two consecutive years in rabi 2006 and 2007. Among 17 known species spotted in garlic fields, 4 were grassy, 12 broad leaf weeds and only one sedge was recorded. Cyperus rotundus. Anagallis arvensis, Chenopodium album, Melilotus indica, Coronopus didymus, Medicago denticulata and Spergula arvensis among broad leaf weeds and Phalaris minor, Poa annua and Polypogon monspliensis among grasses were the major weeds of garlic in all districts. In Karnal, Ambala and Hisar, Anagallis arvensis was the most dominant weed with a relative density (RD) of 18.1, 16.1 and 16.4%, respectively with 100% occurrence in all the three districts while in Kurukshetra, Poa annua dominated weed flora with 20.5% of total weed flora followed by P. minor, A. arvensis and C. album in Yamuna Nagar district. P. minor was the most dominant weed with RD of 19.6% where as in Bhiwani, Chenopodium murale was the most dominant weed of garlic. Trigonella polycerata a weed of light textured soils was found in loamy sand soils of Bhiwani district only.

Address: Department of Agronomy, CCS HAU Hisar (Haryana)
Email: jagir@hau.ernet.in
Weed management in chickpea under irrigated conditions of western Rajasthan
Author Name: O.L. Sharma
DOI:                  IJWS-2009-41-3&4 Supplymentary-15 Page No:182-184
Volume: 41 2009 Full length articles
Keywords:

Chickpea, Seed yield, Fluchloralin, Pendimethalin, Oxyfluorfen

Abstract:

Field trials were conducted for 5 consecutive winter seasons during 2002-03 to 2006-07 to study the effect of weed management practices on seed yield of irrigated chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Results revealed two hand weedings at 20 and 40 DAS recorded lowest dry weight of both monocot and dicot weeds and higher weed control efficiency (61.5%). Among the herbicides, pre-planting and incorporation of fluchloralin at 0.75 kg/ha + 1 hand weeding at 30 DAS was most effective in reducing the dry weight of both monocot and dicot weeds at harvesting, ascertained highest seed yield (1530 kg/ha) over other treatments with net returns of Rs 16904/ha and maximum weed control efficiency (54.5 %). Seed yield recorded with this treatment was at par to pre-emergence pendimethalin at 0.75 kg/ha + 1 hand weeding 30 DAS treatment

Address: Agricultural Research Station, Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner 334 006 (Rajasthan)
Email: sharma_ol@rediffmail.com
Occurrence of alien alligator weed in India with special reference to its infestation in some districts of Madhya Pradesh
Author Name: Sushilkumar, Shobha Sondhia, Kamlesh Vishwakarma
DOI:                  IJWS-2009-41-3&4 Supplymentary-16 Page No:185-187
Volume: 41 2009 Full length articles
Keywords:

Alligator weed, Spread in India, Infestation

Abstract:

Alligator weed, Alternanthera philoxeroides (Martius) Grisebach of family Amaranthaceae, is a native of south America but has spread to 30 countries in the world. At present, the weed has spread to many states of India and has become a problematic weed in aquatic body, ditches, canals and vacant low land areas in residential colonies. Survey revealed the occurrence of alligator weed in Madhya Pradesh, Maharasthra, Assam, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh, Bihar, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Orissa, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal. The infestation of alligator weed varied pond-to-pond ranging from 0.0 to 91.40% in Jabalpur, Satna and Rewa cities of Madhya Pradesh. Out of 27 ponds surveyed in Jabalpur, alligator weed was not found in six ponds. In four ponds infestation ranged between 1 to 25% while 25 to 50% infestation occurred in 8 ponds. In 9 ponds, more than 50 per cent infestation was found. Out of four ponds in Rewa city of Madhya Pradesh, the weed was found in one pond infesting about 45% area of the pond. Weed infestation was severe in two out of three ponds in Satna. These figures clearly indicate the severity of the weed problem in Jabalpur in Particular and in India in general.

Address: Directorate of Weed Science Research, Maharajpur, Adhartal, Jabalpur
Email: sknrcws@gmail.com
Integrated weed management in finger millet under rain-fed region
Author Name: Adikant Pradhan and V. Singh
DOI:                  IJWS-2009-41-3&4 Supplymentary-17 Page No:188-192
Volume: 41 2009 Full length articles
Keywords:

Integrated weed management,Isoproturon, Finger millet, Kharif- ragi, Intercultivation

Abstract:

Weed infestation is serious problem in cultivation of finger millet under upland situation. Two to three flushes of weeds during vegetative phase are common during rains. An experiment was conducted on finger millet during kharif season of 2005, 2006 and 2007 at S.G. College of Agriculture and Research Station, Jagdalpur. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with twelve treatments. Weed population and dry matter accumulation by weeds was significantly varied due to weed control treatments in three years of experimentation. The maximum weed population of 120, 416 and 432 for broad leaf weeds and 916, 858 and 959 for narrow leaf weeds were found in weedy check in 2005, 2006 and 2007, respectively, while dry matter  of 696, 663 and 662 g/m for broad leaf weeds and 1271, 1134 and 514 g/m for narrow leaf weeds was recorded. The application of pre-emergence spray of isoproturon 0.5 Kg/ha + two hand intercultivation (20 and 40 DAS) gave significantly minimum weed population and dry matter accumulation. Pre-emergence spray of isoproturon 0.5 kg/ha + two intercultivations (T8) produced maximum grain yield (1902, 1887 and 1880 kg/ha) after hand weeding

Address: S.G. College of Agriculture and Research Station, Jagdalpur (Chhattisgarh)
Email: adi_197753@rediffmail.com
Performance of different herbicides in onion as affected by method of application
Author Name: A.C. Yadav, S.S.Punia, Suresh Tehlan and Avtar Singh
DOI:                  IJWS-2009-41-3&4 Supplymentary-18 Page No:193-194
Volume: 41 2009 Full length articles
Keywords:

Onion, Oxadiargyl, Pendimethalin, Oxyfluorfen, Weeds

Abstract:

An investigation on weed management studies in onion (Allium cepa) was carried out during rabi seasons of 2006-07 and 2007-08 at CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar. Early postemergence application (10 DAT) of oxadiargyl at 100 g/ha, pre-emergence application of oxadiargyl at 120 g/ha, oxyfluorfen at 250 g/ha, trifluralin at 1000 g/ha and pendimethalin at 1000 g/ha applied through spray supplemented with one hand weeding at 45 days after transplanting (DAT) resulted in significant reduction in population of Chenopodium album, Coronopus didymus, Chenopodium murale and Melilotus indica and higher bulb yield. Bioefficacy of all herbicides applied by spray method was more as compared to sand mix broadcast application

Address: Department of vegetable crops, CCS HAU Hisar (Haryana)
Email: jagir@hau.ernet.in
Integrated weed management studies on sugarcane ratoon
Author Name: Rohitashav Singh, Radhey Shyam and Sanjay Kumar
DOI:                  IJWS-2009-41-3&4 Supplymentary-19 Page No:195-196
Volume: 41 2009 Full length articles
Keywords:

Integrated weed management, Sugarcane ratoon

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted during 2002-03 and 2003-04 to study the effect of integrated weed management in sugarcane ratoon. Echinochloa spp., Cyperus rotundus and Digitaria sanguinalis were the dominating weeds associated with the crop and constituted 17.17, 61.34 and 9.50% of total weed population, respectively. Three hoeings at 30, 60 and 90 days after harvesting (DAH) produced maximum cane yield with the minimum weed dry matter among all treatments, which were at par to pre-emergence application of atrazine at 2.0 or 1.5 kg/ha, supplemented with hoeings at 60 and 90 DAH. Pre-emergence application of atrazine 2.0 kg/ha did not prove efficient to control the weeds.

Address: G.B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology Pantnagar, U.S. Nagar (Uttarakhand)
Email: rohitashsingh_agro@india.com
Bioefficacy of pyroxsulam for weed control in wheat
Author Name: V. Prapta Singh, V.C. Dhayani, S.P. Singh, Abnish Kumar, M.K. Singh and Neeta Tripathi
DOI:                  IJWS-2009-41-3&4 Supplymentary-20 Page No:197-200
Volume: 41 2009 Short communications
Keywords:

Bioefficacy, Pyroxsulam, Chemical control, Wheat

Abstract:

Fifteen treatments with different doses and concentrations of pyroxsulam (12, 15, 18 and 30 g/ha of 3.0% and 3.6% OD both) along with 2,4-D ethyl ester 190 g/ha and aminopyralid 7.5 g/ha were taken in the experimental plot. Treatments having sulfosulfuron 25 g/ha, clodinafop 60 g/ha and isoproturon 1000 g/ha, weed free and weedy plot were also included as standard check. Application of pyroxsulam at 12 and 15 g, recorded significantly lower weed density of Phalaris minor at their lower concentration (3.0% OD) as compared to their higher concentration (3.6% O.D.). However, pyroxsulam at their higher doses (18 and 30 g) recorded similar density of Phalaris minor at both the concentrations at 30 days after herbicide application

Address: Department of Agronomy, G.B. Pant university of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar (Uttarakhand)
Email: vpratapsingh@rediffmail.com
Effect of fertilizer and manure on weed incidence, depletion of nutrients by weeds and yield of soybean
Author Name: Ashok Kumar Lodha, Rishikash Thakur, Shahina Tabasshum and Smita Singh
DOI:                  IJWS-2009-41-3&4 Supplymentary-21 Page No:201-203
Volume: 41 2009 Short communications
Keywords:

Fertility levels, POE herbicide

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted during rainy season of 2008 to study the effect of fertilizer and manure on weed incidence and depletion of nutrients by weeds in soybean. The relative density (RD) of broad leaved weeds were found dominant (33.63%) among all other weeds. Commelina communis was 14.68%, Echinochloa colona 11.97%, Cyperus rotundus 10.14%, Cynodon dactylon 6.70% and other weeds 22.86%. Among the different fertility levels, 100% NPK (20:80:20) + 15 t FYM/ha gave significantly lowest weed biomass, highest WCE (61.51%), zero percent weed index, significantly highest grain yield (8.13 q/ha), highest NPKS nutrient contents in weeds and lowest depletion of NPKS nutrient by weeds

Address: Dept. of Soil Science and Agriculture Chemistry, Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Jabalpur (Madhya Pradesh)
Email: sapnapuat@gmail.com
Effect of post emergence herbicides on yield and economics of kharif soybean
Author Name: H.P. Khedkar, B.D. Patel and R.B. Patel
DOI:                  IJWS-2009-41-3&4 Supplymentary-22 Page No:204-206
Volume: 41 2009 Short communications
Keywords:

Soybean, Weeds, Imazethapyr, Chlorimuron ethyl, Fenoxaprop-p-ethyl, Quizalofop ethyl

Abstract:

A field experiment was carried out at Agronomy Farm, B.A. College of Agriculture, Anand Agricultural University, Anand (Gujarat) during kharif season of the year 2008. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design (RBD) with four replications and twelve weed control treatments viz., imazethapyr 75 g/ha (T1), imazethapyr 75 g/ha fb chlorimuron ethyl 8 g/ha (T2), imazethapyar 75 g/ha fb hand weeding 30 DAS (T3), fenoxaprop-p-ethyl 75 g/ha (T4), fenoxaprop-p-ethyl 75 g/ha fb chlorimuron ethyl 8 g/ha (T5), fenoxaprop-p-ethyl 75 g/ha fb hand weeding at 30 DAS (T6), quizalofop ethyl 75 g/ha (T7), quizalofop ethyl 75 g/ha fb chlorimuron ethyl 8 g/ha (T8), quizalofop ethyl 75 g/ha fb hand weeding at 30 DAS (T9), hand weeding at 20 and 40 DAS (T10) inter fb hand weeding at 20 and 40 DAS (T11) and weedy check (T12), with the objectives to compare different weed management practices and effect on growth and yield of soybean. Application of post emergence herbicide in conjunction with hand weeding was found effective for control of monocot, dicot and sedges at harvest in kharif soybean. Treatment T11, registered higher seed (2251 kg/ha), straw yield (3756 kg/ha) and harvest index (34.72%) followed by treatments T10, T9 (quizalofop ethyl 75 g/ha as PoE fb hand weeding at 30 DAS) and T6 (fenoxaprop-p-ethyl 75 g/ha as PoE fb hand weeding at 30 DAS), respectively. Moreover, cost benefit ratio was also recorded higher (1:3.67) under the treatment T , followed by treatment T10, T3, and T6

Address: DWSR-Anand Centre, B.A. College of Agriculture, Anand Agricultural University, Anand (Gujarat)
Email: bdpatel62@yahoo.com
Comparative performance of plant extracts, biocontrol agents and fungicides on the diseases of sunflower
Author Name: R. Poorniammal and C. Sarathambal
DOI:                  IJWS-2009-41-3&4 Supplymentary-23 Page No:207-209
Volume: 41 2009 Short communications
Keywords:

Weed extracts, Calotropis gigantea, Prosopis juliflora, Rust, Leaf spot

Abstract:

A field study was conducted to find out comparative efficacy of plant extracts, biocontrol agents and chemical fungicides on leaf spot and rust. It was found that fungicide propiconazole 0.1% spray recorded the highest reduction in disease incidence of leaf spot (83.3%) and rust (79.5%) which was followed by neem oil spray 1% (62.8% and 64.2%). However, the biocontrol agents Pseudomonas fluorescens (42.31% and 44.43%) and pink pigmented facultative methylotroph (PPFM) (39.95 and 43.38%) performed slightly inferior when compared with neem oil and garlic extract. Lowest reduction in the disease incidence of leaf spot (18.2%) and rust (16.23%) were observed in Prosopis juliflora 10% extract. Similarly, when yield was estimated, highest yield was recorded in propiconazole 0.1% spray (1727 kg/ha) followed by neem oil spray 1% (1647kg/ha).

Address: Department of Agricultural Microbiology, TNAU, Coimbatore (Tamil Nadu)
Email: poornimicrobiology@yahoo.co.in
Influence of seeding methods and weed management practices on direct seeded rice
Author Name: S.P. Sangeetha, A. Balakrishnan, R. Sathya Priya and J. Maheswari
DOI:                  IJWS-2009-41-3&4 Supplymentary-24 Page No:210-212
Volume: 41 2009 Short communications
Keywords:

Direct seeded rice, Method of seeding, Weed management

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted to study the influence of seeding methods and weed management practices on direct seeded rice. Study revealed that drum seeding + green manure method of seeding establishment and pre-emergence application of pretilachlor + safener at the rate of 0.45 kg/ha at 5 days after sowing (DAS) + hand weeding (HW) at 45 DAS registered improved crop growth parameters, yield attributes and grain yield of crop with lower weed count and weed dry matter.

Address: Department of Agronomy, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore (Tamil Nadu)
Email: sangeetha.agr@gmail.com
Efficacy of post-emergence herbicides in soybean under various fertility levels and their residual effects on succeeding crops
Author Name: P.S. Deore, V.D. Khanpara, S.C. Wadile, D.A. Sonawane and S.S. Chitodkar
DOI:                  IJWS-2009-41-3&4 Supplymentary-25 Page No:213-217
Volume: 41 2009 Short communications
Keywords:

Herbicides, Pendimethalin, Imazethapyr, Soybean, Residual effect

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted during the rainy season of 2006 at Instructional farm, College of Agriculture, Junagadh Agriculture University, Junagadh on clayey soil to study the efficacy of post-emergence herbicides on soybean under different fertility levels and their residual effects on succeeding crops of sorghum, bajra, barley and ragi. Among the weed management practices, the weed free treatment produced significantly higher grain yield (2336 kg/ha) and stover yield (2772 kg/ha). The next best treatment to control the weeds at initial growth stage was pendimethalin 0.5 kg/ha pre-em + HW + IC at 30 DAS. The treatment imazethapyr 75 g/ha post-em. at 25 DAS +HW +IC 45 DAS ) recorded the lowest no. of weeds/m2. Among the fertilizer levels the treatments F3 40:80:40 and F2 30:60:30 N, P2O5, K2O kg/ha recorded equally the higher grains (2006 kg/ha and 1973 kg/ha) and stover yield (2321 kg/ha and 2228 kg/ha, respectively).The crops like sorghum, bajra, barley and ragi can be sown safely as succeeding crops after harvesting the kharif soybean. In soybean the effective weed management up to 60 DAS and fertilizing the crop with 30:60:60 N, P2O5, K2O kg/ha gave higher grains and stover yield and had no residual effect on succeeding crops

Address: College of Agriculture, Dhule (Maharasthra)
Email: scwadile72@gmail.com