Prin ISSN 0253-8040
Online ISSN 0974-8164

Indian Journal of

Weed Science

Editorial board


Dr. Sushilkumar
Directorate of Weed Research
Maharajpur, Adhartal, Jabalpur - 482004 (MP), INDIA
Mobile - +91 9425186747
Email- editorisws@gmail
Dr. A.N. Rao
Hydarabad, INDIA
Mobile Number: +91 9440372165
Email: adusumilli.narayanarao@gmail.com

Dr.J.S. Mishra
Patna, INDIA
Mobile - +91 9494240904
Email- jsmishra31@gmail.com

Editors

Dr. M.D. Reddy, (Hyderabad)
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Dr. N. Prabhakaran (Coimbatore)
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Dr. Gulshan Mahajan (Ludhiana)
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Email- mahajangulshan@rediffmail.com
Dr. Ashok Yadav (Patna)
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Email: aky444@gmail.com
Dr. Suresh Gautam (Himachal Pradesh)
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Email- skg_63@yahoo.com
Dr. C. Sarthambal (Jabalpur)
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Email- saratha6@gmail.com
Dr. P. Janaki (Coimbatore)
Mobile Number: 9443936160
Email: janakibalamurugan@rediffmail.com
Dr. V.S.G.R. Naidu (Rajahmundry)
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Dr. T. Ram Prakash (Hyderabad)
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Dr. T.K. Das (New Delhi)
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Email: tkdas64@gmail.com
Dr. K.A. Gopinath (Hyderabad)
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Email- gopinath@crida.in
Dr. Narendra Kumar (Kanpur)
Mobile - +91 9473929876
Email- nkumar.icar@gmail.com
Future scenario of weed management in India
Author Name: Jay G. Varshney and M.B.B. Prasad Babu
DOI:                  IJWS-2008-40-1&2 Supplymentary-1 Page No:1-9
Volume: 40 2008 Review article
Keywords:

India, Weed management

Abstract:

Agriculture is the mainstay of Indian economy because of its high share in employment and livelihood creation. This sector supports more than half a billion people providing employment to 52 per cent of the workforce. With availability of fixed land and decreasing water resources, the goal of 4 per cent growth in agriculture can be achieved only by increasing productivity per unit of these scarce natural resources through effective use of improved technology. The agricultural research system has so far focused mainly on breeding varieties that increase the yield potential of individual crops by enabling more intensive use of inputs. One technology which has a potential to yield substantial increase in the production of foodgrains is proper weed management as weeds alone are known to account for about 15 to 85 per cent losses in the productivity. The paper discusses the future challenges in the area of weed management that require the attention of researchers.

Address: National Research Centre for Weed Science, Jabalpur (Madhya Pradesh)
Email: varshneyjg@gmail.com
Impact of herbicides on soil environment
Author Name: K.K. Barman and Jay G. Varshney
DOI:                  IJWS-2008-40-1&2 Supplymentary-2 Page No:10-17
Volume: 40 2008 Review article
Keywords:

Actinomycetes, Ammonification, Bacteria, Earthworms, Fungi, Herbicides, India, Nematodes, Nitrification, Nitrogen fixation, Soil enzymes

Abstract:

The assessment and monitoring of soil life and soil health can be used to develop more sustainable and productive farming systems. Hence, the consequence of herbicide application on soil health is always a concern for the research community. In view of this, the findings available from India in respect to the impact of herbicides on the non-target organisms and important soil bio-chemical processes are reviewed in this paper. There is great variation among the reports showing short term transient depressing to non-inhibitory or even stimulatory effects of herbicides on total soil microbial count and different soil bio-chemical indices. The impact differed depending upon the soil type, experimental conditions, herbicide in question and its dose, and the sensitivity of the non-target species or strains. No severe ill effect on soil flora, soil bio-chemical indices and soil fauna has been observed so far at recommended dose of herbicide under field conditions. However, the available information is based on the short term experiments and there is need to develop data base on long-term field application basis. The paper concludes with some suggested areas for future research requiring urgent attention.

Address: National Research Centre for Weed Science, Jabalpur (Madhya Pradesh)
Email: barmankk@gmail.com
Long term effect of herbicides on weed shift and sustainable yields of rice-rice system under lowland conditions in southern Karnataka
Author Name: T.V. Ramachandra Prasad, G.R. Denesh and V.K. Kiran Kumar
DOI:                  IJWS-2008-40-1&2 Supplymentary-3 Page No:18-21
Volume: 40 2008 Full length articles
Keywords:

Herbicids, Long term effect, Rice-rice cropping system, Weed shift

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted on sandy clay loam soil at Kathalagere, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore (Bhadra command area of southern transition zone of Karnataka) during 1999 to 2006 in lowland transplanted rice -rice cropping system to know the effect of continuous use of weed management practices on weed shift and yields. Use of herbicide butachlor 0.75 kg + 2,4-D EE 0.4 kg/ha at three days after application (DAP), applied in sequence gave broad spectrum weed control during kharif but its application during summer could not lower the density of sedge and grasses and consequently gave slightly lower yield by 15th season (5055 kg/ha) than rice treated with butachlor + 2,4-D EE in kharif and pretilachlor 0.75 kg/ha in summer (5446 kg/ha) and farmers’ practice of hand weeding twice (5101 kg/ha). Further, continuous use of butachlor 0.75 kg + 2, 4-D EE 0.4 kg/ha at 3 DAP both during kharif and summer paved way for dominance of sedges (particularly C. difformis and F. miliacea) and grasses (E. glabrascens) during fourth summer crop of rice–rice system, as compared to the use of butachlor 0.75 kg + 2, 4-D EE 0.4 kg/ha at 3 DAP during kharif followed by pretilachlor 0.75 kg/ha during summer. Thus, rotation of butachlor + 2, 4-D EE followed by pretilachlor lowered the menace of sedges, grasses and broad leaf weeds in long term rice- rice system. Continuous use of herbicides gave rice yields (4637 to 4768 kg/ha) similar to hand weeding (4856 kg/ha) and saved weeding cost considerably. Combined use of fertilizers and FYM did not favour any weed types, density or dry weight as compared to fertilizer usage alone

Address: AICRP on Weed Control, University of Agricultural Sciences, Hebbal, Bangalore (Karnataka)
Email: tvramachandraprasad@rediffmail.com
Influence of covering materials on weed control and yield of chickpea
Author Name: Jay G. Varshney and Lalit Kumar
DOI:                  IJWS-2008-40-1&2 Supplymentary-4 Page No:22-25
Volume: 40 2008 Full length articles
Keywords:

Covering materials, Farm litters, Farm wastes, Mulches, Tree litters, Weed management

Abstract:

A study was conducted at Indian Institute of Pulses Research, Kanpur to determine the effect of different farm litters/covering materials/mulches for various durations on weed infestation and seed yield in rainfed chickpea. Results revealed that Azadirachta indica (neem) leaves applied at 5 t/ha suppressed density of common lambsquarters, purple nut sedge and scarlet pimpernel and gave an over all mean weed smothering efficiency (WSE) of 45.7% and 76.0% more seed yield (1609 kg/ha) of chickpea in comparison of no cover applied. Covering of transparent/black polythene sheet (0.4 mm) resulted in low density and biomass of such weeds attaining 57.7% mean WSE and 116% more mean seed yield (1962 kg/ha) of chickpea in comparison of check (906 kg/ha). Other materials such as pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L) Millep) or mango (Mangifera indica L.) leaves or rice straw also significantly suppressed weed intensity and enhanced yield to a variable extent. Among different weed flora, lambsquarters caused significant reduction in seed yield of chickpea, while among yield components, test weight was highly influenced due to weed infestation causing yield reduction. The density and biomass of weeds reduced with progressive increase in duration of covering mulches. Covering duration of mulches for 60 days proved significantly better over 30 days duration.

Address: National Research Centre for Weed Science (ICAR), Jabalpur (Madhya Pradesh)
Email: varshneyjg@gmail.com
Yield of rice-wheat cropping system as influenced by chemical and mechanical weed management in Chhattisgarh
Author Name: A.P. Singh, S.S. Kolhe, M.C. Bhamri, K.K. Purohit and T. Chaudhary
DOI:                  IJWS-2008-40-1&2 Supplymentary-5 Page No:26-28
Volume: 40 2008 Full length articles
Keywords:

Butachlor, Oxadiargyl, Pretilachlor, Pendimethalin, Rice-wheat cropping system, Sulfosulfuron, Yield

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted during the years 2002-03 and 2003-04 at Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur (Chhattisgarh) to develop an effective weed management practice in rice-wheat cropping system. Pre-emergence application of oxadiargyl 0.08 kg/ha produced maximum grain yield (5.43 t/ha) of transplanted rice which was comparable to hand hoeing twice at 20 and 35 DAT (5.22 t/ha) and pre-emergence application of pretilachlor 0.75 kg/ha (5.14 t/ha) mainly due to higher weed control efficiencies associated with them than other weed management treatments. Post-emergence application of sulfosulfuron (0.025kg/ha) produced maximum grain yield of wheat which was at par with pre–emergence application of pendimethalin (1.0 kg/ha) and hand hoeing twice.

Address: Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur (Chattisgarh)
Email: apalsingh@yahoo.com
Evaluation of leaching potential of oxyfluorfen in clay soil under field conditions
Author Name: Shobha Sondhia
DOI:                  IJWS-2008-40-1&2 Supplymentary-6 Page No:29-31
Volume: 40 2008 Full length articles
Keywords:

Clay soil, Leaching, Movement, Oxyfluorfen, Rainfall

Abstract:

An experiment was conducted during July to September 2007 to determine leaching behavior and movement of oxyfluorfen in clay soil under natural rainfall conditions in PVC columns which received 830.5 mm rainfall. Oxyfluorfen was applied in the soil column at 200 and 400 g/ha. After every rain leachates were collected and analyzed for oxyfluorfen residues. Oxyfluorfen movement was evaluated in the soil at various depths at the interval of 10 cm viz, 0-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-40, 40-50, 50-60, 60-70 and 70-86 cm depths. A total of 0.226 μg/g of oxyfluorfen was recovered after 850 mm rainfall. The data indicated that oxyfluorfen may move up to 90 cm in soil profile under continuous and high rainfall conditions and thus may have potential to contaminate ground water

Address: National Research Centre for Weed Science, Maharajpur, Jabalpur (Madhya Pradesh)
Email: shobhasondia@yahoo.com
Allelopathic effect of sesame root exudates against purple nut sedge
Author Name: Lalit Kumar and Jay G. Varshney
DOI:                  IJWS-2008-40-1&2 Supplymentary-7 Page No:32-36
Volume: 40 2008 Full length articles
Keywords:

Allelocompounds, Nut sedge, Root exudates

Abstract:

Emulsive water concentrate (EW) formulation of allelocompounds obtained from root exudates of sesame plants applied on tubers of purple nut sedge caused significant delay and inhibition in germination. EW formulation at 240 μg/g concentration of soil inhibited shoots and root biomass by 81.3 and 91.9%, respectively over control. Application of unformulated product on 15 days germinated tubers caused no significant effect on their growth and development at varying concentrations (0-240 μg/g soil) but showed adverse effect after some time. In pot experiment, isolated root exudates caused severe reduction in total shoot and root biomass of purple nut sedge. After two months, maximum reduction in total biomass and root biomass was observed by 68.0 and 90.0%, respectively at 240 μg/g of soil. Application of 240 μg/g of purified allelocompounds of root exudates caused 97% reduction in total number of newly formed tubers

Address: Division of Crop Production, Indian Institute of Pulses Research, Kalyanpur, Kanpur (Uttar Pradesh)
Email: lalit1997@ymail.com
Effect of varying tillage and sowing methods on weed dynamics under rice-wheat cropping system in Kymore plateau and Satpura hill zone of Madhya Pradesh
Author Name: A.K. Jha, M.L. Kewat, P.L. Chaturvedi, R.S. Sharma and S.K. Vishwakarma
DOI:                  IJWS-2008-40-1&2 Supplymentary-8 Page No:37-40
Volume: 40 2008 Full length articles
Keywords:

Cropping system, Weed biomass, Weed dynamics, Weed intensity

Abstract:

Field experiments carried out in rice–wheat cropping system revealed that 29 weeds infested the rice crop and out of them 10 and 2 weed species were absent on 30th day and maturity stages, respectively. Total weed intensity was 116 weeds/m2 at 15-30 day stage of rice, which was double (201 weeds/m2) at maturity stage. Direct seeded rice had significantly higher weed intensity (143 and 226 weeds/m2 at 30DAS and maturity stages, respectively) with the highest weed biomass of 5.55 q/ha at maturity stage than all other 3 tillage and sowing methods. Wheat crop was infested with 17 weed species out of which two species were absent at 30 DAS and maturity stages. The zero till wheat had significantly higher weed intensity (121 and 81 weeds/m2 at 30 DAS and maturity stages, respectively) than other three tillage and sowing methods. The former had also significantly higher weed biomass than latter. The weed intensity was higher (95 weeds/m2) at 30 DAS than that at maturity ( 59/m2).

Address: Department of Agronomy, Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidayalya, Jabalpur (Madhya Pradesh)
Email: amitagcrewa@rediffmail.com
Weed management in winter maize + potato intercropping system
Author Name: D.K. Roy, D. Singh, N.K. Sinha and D.N. Pandey
DOI:                  IJWS-2008-40-1&2 Supplymentary-9 Page No:41-43
Volume: 40 2008 Full length articles
Keywords:

Benefit-cost ratio, Herbicides, Weed control efficiency, Winter maize+potato intercropping

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of weed management practices on weed control and yield of maize + potato intercropping system. The highest maize equivalent yield (152.79 q/ha) was recorded with two hand weedings at 25 and 50 days after sowing (DAS) closely followed by atrazine 0.5 kg/ha followed by hand weeding at 50 DAS (149.69 q/ha). The lowest maize equivalent yield (91.85 q/ha) was recorded in weedy check. All the weed management practices significantly reduced the density and biomass of grasses, sedges and broad leaf weeds over weedy check. The highest weed control efficiency (76.44%) was recorded with hand weeding (twice) followed by atrazine 0.5 kg/ha fb hand weeding at 50 DAS (66.25%). Maximum net monetary returns (Rs 61155/ha) was recorded under hand weeding (twice), which was at par with atrazine 0.5 kg/ha followed by one hand weeding at 50 DAS (Rs 59877/ha).

Address: Department of Agronomy, Rajendra Agricultural University, Pusa (Bihar)
Email: dr_dhirendrakroy@yahoo.com
Chemical weed control in cumin-pearl millet cropping system
Author Name: R.B. Patel, B.D. Patel and M.I. Meisuriya
DOI:                  IJWS-2008-40-1&2 Supplymentary-10 Page No:44-45
Volume: 40 2008 Full length articles
Keywords:

Cumin-pearl millet cropping system, Chemical control

Abstract:

Pre-plant application of pendimethalin or fluchloralin or trifluralin 1.0 kg/ha was effective to control weeds in cumin. Seed yield of cumin was significantly higher with application of pendimethalin 1.0 kg/ha which was at par with application of fluchloralin or trifluralin 1.0 kg/ha and hand weeding twice (30 & 45 DAS). In cumin-pearl millet cropping system, trifluralin 1.00 kg/ha was effective for weed management in cumin without reducing yield of succeeding pearl millet. Whereas in cumin-transplanted pearl millet cropping system, pre-plant application of fluchloralin or trifluralin at 1.0 kg/ha was effective for weed management.

Address: AICRP on Weed Control, B. A. College of Agriculture, Anand Agricultural University, Anand (Gujarat)
Email: rbpatel33@yahoo.com
Evaluation of herbicide persistence in sediment to control alligator weed
Author Name: Sushil Kumar, Shobha Sondhia and K. Vishwakarma
DOI:                  IJWS-2008-40-1&2 Supplymentary-11 Page No:46-49
Volume: 40 2008 Full length articles
Keywords:

Alligator weed, Residues, Persistence, Dissipation, Alternanthera philoxeroides

Abstract:

Alligator weed is a serious problem of aquatic and low land areas in India. 2, 4-D, metsulfuronmethyl and glyphosate were evaluated at different doses to control terrestrial form of alligator weed. It was found that persistence of metsulfuron-methyl was directly dependent on application dose and persistence of herbicides increased with increased rate of application. 2, 4-D residues dissipated completely by 15 and 45 days from 0-15 and15-30 cm soil depth at 2.5 kg/ha. Glyphosate and metsulfuron-methyl persisted upto 45 and 60 days, respectively

Address: National Research Centre for Weed Science, Jabalpur (Madhya Pradesh)
Email: sknrcws@gmail.com
Weed management through dual cropping of green manure in semi-dry rice
Author Name: K. Nalini, C. Jayanthi and C. Vennila
DOI:                  IJWS-2008-40-1&2 Supplymentary-12 Page No:50-51
Volume: 40 2008 Full length articles
Keywords:

Dual cropping, Green manure, Semi-dry rice, Weed management

Abstract:

Field experiments were conducted to study the effect of dual cropping of green manure on weed management in semi-dry rice. The maximum reduction in weed density and dry matter was achieved under paired row sowing (PRS) of rice with Sesbania aculeata under weed free conditions. PRS of rice with Sesbania aculeata under weed free condition recorded the lesser weed index, higher weed control and weed smothering efficiencies. The higher yield (3528 kg/ha) was achieved with PRS of rice with Sesbania aculeata under weed free condition but it was comparable with normal sowing of rice with pendimethalin 1.0 kg/ha at 3 days after sowing (DAS) fb two hand weeding on 30 and 60 DAS.

Address: Department of Agronomy, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore (Tamil Nadu)
Email: nalinivelur@yahoo.co.in
Weeds of rainy season in plantations of five lac host species
Author Name: B.P. Singh, S. Ghosal, A.K. Singh and Y.D. Mishra
DOI:                  IJWS-2008-40-1&2 Supplymentary-13 Page No:52-54
Volume: 40 2008 Full length articles
Keywords:

Lac host species, Weeds in plantation

Abstract:

Established plantations of five important lac hosts viz. Butea monosperma (palas), Zizyphus mauritiana (ber), Schleichera oleosa (kusum), Flemingia macrophylla (bhalia) and Flemingia semialata, have been found predominated by grassy weeds (72.07%) of total accumulated weeds, followed by broadleaved weeds (23.17%) and sedges (4.76%). Important weed flora in these plantations consisted of Eleusine indica (L) Gaertn, Echinochloa spp (L.), Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers., Dactyloctenium aegyptium P.Beauv, Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop, Brachiaria remosa (L.) among grasses, Ageratum conyzoides L., Alternanthra sessilis (L.), Emilia sonchifolia and Spilanthes acmella among broadleaved weeds and Cyperus iria and C. rotundus among sedges. Among these weed species, Ageratum conyzoides (L), Brachiaria remosa (L) and Echinocloa spp. (L) were common in all the lac host plantations. The A. conyzoides was the most predominant weed species in numbers with relative frequency values, ranging between 24.0 to 64.2% in all plantations except in F. semialata (9.1%).

Address: Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums, Namkum, Ranchi (Jharkhand)
Email: bharatprasad_s@yahoo.com
Accumulation of heavy metals by weeds grown along drains of Jabalpur
Author Name: P.J. Khankhane and Jay G. Varshney
DOI:                  IJWS-2008-40-1&2 Supplymentary-14 Page No:55-59
Volume: 40 2008 Full length articles
Keywords:

Alternanathera philoxeroides, Convolvulus arvensis, Heavy metals, Mullugo verticillata,

Waste water

Abstract:

An investigation was made to evaluate the ability of weed species for nickel, copper, iron and zinc accumulation growing in various contaminated drain sites of Jabalpur and adjoining areas. The major weed flora in drains were Alternanthera philoxeroides, Polygonum persicaria, Commelina communis, Alternanthera sessilis, Ludwigia adscendens, Mollugo verticillata and Amaranthus viridis. The mean copper content observed in waste water exceeded the limit whereas nickel, iron and zinc were below the permissible limit. The sequence of concentration of heavy metals in waste water was in the order of iron > zinc > copper > nickel. Among the weed species A. philoxeroides accumulated higher nickel (26 μg/g ) and zinc (553 μg/g ) content followed by M. verticillata (24 μg/g Ni) and A. viridis (488 μg/g Zn). The M. verticillata accumulated higher copper contant (94 μg/g) whereas Convolvulus arvensis accumulated higher iron (1900 μg/g) followed by L. adscendens (1878 μg/g), A. philoxeroides (1507 μg/g ) and M. verticillata (1487 μg/g). These observations may be used while selecting the plant species for phyto-remediation of waste water in a constructed wetland. The use of A. philoxeroides as a cattle fodder can find metal entry in the food chain is of major concern.

Address: National Research Centre for Weed Science, Maharajpur, Jabalpur (Madhya Pradesh)
Email: pjkhankhane@yahoo.com
Seasonal cycle, hibernation and migration of tingid bug, a potential biocontrol agent of Lantana at Saharanpur
Author Name: S.C. Dhiman and Y.K. Yadav
DOI:                  IJWS-2008-40-1&2 Supplymentary-15 Page No:60-62
Volume: 40 2008 Full length articles
Keywords:

Hibernation, Lantana camara, Migration, Seasonal cycle, Teleonemia scrupulosa

Abstract:

Teleonemia scrupulosa Stal. is a potential biocontrol agent of Lantana. The weed and bug T. scrupulosa occurred throughout the year at Saharanpur. Bug population decreased during July – August due to rain at temperature ranging from 23.32 to 33.20°C and R.H. 71.64 to 95.82%. Population increased during September to November at temperature 10.35 to 32.62°C and R.H. 32.42 to 93.97%. T. scrupulosa did not hibernate or aestivate during winter months of December to mid February. Its population decreases and found in clusters on ventral side of leaves. In an aggregation, 3–20 bugs were seen. Both local and distant flights were taken. When the plants of one habitat were destroyed or dry up, the adults migrated to other places. During sunny days, bugs fed on dorsal surface of leaves, stem and on inflorescence in morning and evening hours but due to mid day heat of May and June, these migrated to ventral side of leaves

Address: Entomology Research Lab., Department of Zoology, M.S. College, Saharanpur (Uttar Pradesh)
Email: pk_1280@yahoo.co.in
Adoption of improved weed management practices by vegetable growers of Jabalpur in Madhya Pradesh
Author Name: P.K. Singh
DOI:                  IJWS-2008-40-1&2 Supplymentary-16 Page No:63-65
Volume: 40 2008 Full length articles
Keywords:

Adoption of technology, Vegetable growers, Weed management

Abstract:

Adoption of improved practices by vegetable growers was studied in Jabalpur district of Madhya Pradesh during 2006-07. Forty nine per cent peripheral respondents were found to be having low level of adoption of improved weed management practices in vegetable cultivation, while 33% respondents belonged to medium adoption group. In the case of distant respondents, 60 per cent had low level of adoption, whereas 40% respondents belonged to the medium adoption group. There was no significant difference in adoption between both the categories of respondents regarding three improved practices i.e. weed management in nursery (traditional method), weed management in standing crops (hand weeding) and manure and fertilizers application

Address: National Research Centre for Weed Science, Maharajpur, Adhartal, Jabalpur (Madhya Pradesh)
Email: drsinghpk@gmail.com
Effect of planting geometry and fertilizer levels on weed density and biomass in Bt cotton
Author Name: K. Kalaichelvi
DOI:                  IJWS-2008-40-1&2 Supplymentary-17 Page No:66-68
Volume: 40 2008 Full length articles
Keywords:

Bt cotton, Fertilizer level, Plant geometry

Abstract:

Field experiments were conducted to study the effect of plant spacing and fertilizer levels on weed density and weed dry matter production in Bt cotton hybrids. MECH 162 and RCH 2 Bt hybrids had lower weed density and dry matter production than MECH 184 Bt hybrid. Closer plant spacing of 90x45 and 90x60 cm and fertilizer application of 120:60:60 and 160:80:80 kg NPK/ha reduced the weed density and weed dry weight than 120x60 cm of plant spacing and 200:100:100 kg NPK/ha of fertilizer application. MECH 162 and RCH 2 Bt cotton adopted with plant geometry of 90x60 cm and applied with fertilizer level of 160:80:80 kg NPK/ha recorded higher seed cotton yield.

Address: Department of Agronomy, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore (Tamil Nadu)
Email: kalaiagri2003@yahoo.com
Interference of common lambsquarters and wild onion in winter onion
Author Name: R. P. Dubey
DOI:                  IJWS-2008-40-1&2 Supplymentary-18 Page No:69-71
Volume: 40 2008 Full length articles
Keywords:

Common lambsquarters, Density, Interference, Onion, Wild onion

Abstract:

Field experiments were conducted during winter seasons of the year 2002-03 and 2003-04 to study the effect of increasing densities of common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L.) and wild onion (Asphodelus tenuifolius Cav.) on the productivity of winter onion. There was significant decrease in onion bulb yield even with density of C. album at 5 plants/m2 compared to weed free treatment. The per cent yield reduction ranged from 16 to 40% at densities of C. album from 5 to 160 plants/m2 over weed free treatment, respectively. Similarly, 80 plants/ m2 of A. tenuifolius and more caused significant reduction in onion bulb yield as compared to weed free treatment. The onion bulb yield reduced from 2.6 to 52.6% by increasing the density of A. tenuifolius from 20 to 640 plants/m2, respectively over weed free treatment

Address: National Research Centre for Weed Science, Jabalpur (Madhya Pradesh)
Email: dubeyrp1@yaahoo.co.in
Effect of weed managment techniques on weed dynamics and green foder yield of sorghum
Author Name: Vinod Kumar, S.S. Tripathi, H.K. Sachan and Vir Pal Singh
DOI:                  IJWS-2008-40-1&2 Supplymentary-19 Page No:72-74
Volume: 40 2008 Full length articles
Keywords:

Alachlor, Atrazine, Pendimethalin, Weeds

Abstract:

A field experiment was carried out during kharif season of 2001 to 2002 to study the effect of different weed management techniques on weed dynamics and green fodder yield of sorghum. The sorghum crop was infested with Cyperus spp. (38.9%) and Echinochloa colona (28.0%) as major weeds and others (33.1%), which reduced 75.0 and 22.8% of green forage yields during both the years, respectively. Application of atrazine at 0.5 kg/ha PE + 0.5 kg/ha at 10 days after sowing significantly reduced total population and dry weight of weeds being at par to atrazine 1.0 kg/ha PE, one hand weeding at 20 days after sowing and atrazine at 0.5 kg/ha PE+ one hand weeding at 30 days after sowing. These treatments had higher weed control efficiency (WCE) than that of alachlor, pendimethalin, cowpea as intercrop, one and half time seed rate and weedy check during both the years. Application of atrazine at 0.5 kg/ha PE + 0.5 kg/ha at 10 DAS produced more plant height, dry matter accumulation/shoot, leaf area/plant and also green fodder yield of the sorghum, being at par with that of atrazine at 1.0 kg/ha PE, one hand weeding at 20 DAS and atrazine 0.5 kg/ha PE + one hand weeding at 30 DAS but significantly higher than that of other treatments in both the years.

Address: Department of Agronomy,G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology Pantnagar, (Uttarakhand)
Email: vinodkbhatt@hotmail.com
Survey and selection of potential pathogens for biological control of waterhyacinth
Author Name: Puja Ray, Sushilkumar and Akhilesh Kumar Pandey
DOI:                  IJWS-2008-40-1&2 Supplymentary-20 Page No:75-78
Volume: 40 2008 Full length articles
Keywords:

Biological control, Waterhyacinth, Pathogens

Abstract:

Waterhyacinth is the world worst aquatic weed causing severe ecological and economical losses. Plant pathogens are playing an increasing role in classical biological control of weeds worldwide. The present study attempts to explore some endemic phytopathogens of waterhyacinth. During surveys of waterhyacinth infested water bodies in Jabalpur, 31 isolates of endemic pathogens were recovered from diseased plant parts of the weed. The emergent fungi were purified and screened for their pathogenicity to waterhyacinth in two ways viz., spraying of the spore/mycelial suspension and secondary metabolites produced in broth, under growth chamber conditions. Of these Alternaria alternata followed by Curvularia lunata, Fusarium pallidoroseum, Alternaria eichhorniae and Rhizoctonia solani were found to be highly pathogenic

Address: National Research Centre for Weed Science, Maharajpur, Adhartal, Jabalpur (Madhya Pradesh)
Email: puja_ray@gmail.com
Evaluation of herbicides for control of Parthenium in waste land
Author Name: C.B. Gaikwad, M.C. Kasture and B.M. Lambade
DOI:                  IJWS-2008-40-1&2 Supplymentary-21 Page No:79-81
Volume: 40 2008 Full length articles
Keywords:

Herbicides, Parthenium, WCE, Weed dry matterWeed intensity

Abstract:

The effect of different herbicides viz. glyphosate (0.5 and 0.75%), metribuzin (0.25 and 0.50%), metsulfuron-methyl (0.005 and 0.01%), 2,4-D EE (0.2 and 0.3%), atrazine (0.2 and 0.3%) was evaluated along with manual weeding (uprooting and cutting), NaCl 20% spray and unsprayed control in waste land at Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri, Ahmednagar (M.H.) for two successive years during rabi 2004-05 and 2005-06. Results indicated that application of metribuzin and 2,4-D EE (0.2 and 0.3%) was found more effective for controlling Parthenium at 15 days after spraying. However, spraying of glyphosate (0.50 and 0.75%), atrazine (0.2 and 0.3%), 2,4-D EE and metribuzin recorded significantly lowest weed density and dry matter production and increased weed control efficiency at 30 days after spraying.

Address: Department of Agronomy, Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri, Ahmednagar (Maharashtra)
Email: cbgaikwad@indiatimes.com
Persistence of butachlor in sandy clay loam soil and detection of its residues in rice grain and straw
Author Name: Shobha Sondhia
DOI:                  IJWS-2008-40-1&2 Supplymentary-22 Page No:82-84
Volume: 40 2008 Full length articles
Keywords:

Butachlor, Dissipation, Residues, Rice grains, Soil, Straw samples

Abstract:

Persistence of butachlor in clay soil was investigated under field conditions and its residues were determined in soil, rice grain and straw samples. Butachlor was applied at 1.0 kg/ha in rice field. Soil samples were collected at 1, 15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 days after butachlor application and were analyzed for residues. Rice grains and straw were sampled at harvest. HPLC was used to detect butachlor residues. The residue level of butachlor in soil was found 2.56 μg/g a day after butachlor application, which decreased to 0.0028 μg/g at harvest, respectively. However rice grains and straw samples contained 0.003 μg/g and 0.067 μg/g residues, respectively. Half-life of butachlor in the soil was found to be 12.75 days.

Address: National Research Centre for Weed Science, Maharajpur, Jabalpur(Madhya Pradesh)
Email: shobhasondia@yahoo.com
Integrated weed management studies in spring planted sugarcane
Author Name: Rohitashav Singh, Radhey Shyam, S.S. Tripathi and Sanjay Kumar
DOI:                  IJWS-2008-40-1&2 Supplymentary-23 Page No:85-87
Volume: 40 2008 Full length articles
Keywords:

Herbicides, Integrated weed management, Sugarcane, Weed-control efficiency

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of integrated weed management practices in spring planted sugarcane. Echinochloa spp, Cyperus rotundus, Celosia argentia, Ipomoea spp, were the dominant weeds associated with the crop and constituted 22.22, 48.38, 13.62 and 5.73% of total weed population, respectively. Three hoeings at 30, 60 and 90 days after planting preemergence application of metribuzin at 0.080 kg/ha or ametryn at 2.0 kg/ ha with two hoeings done at 60 and 90 DAP were most effective against most of the weeds and were at par with three hoeings at 30, 60 and 90 days after planting among themselves

Address: Department of Agronomy, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar (Uttarakhand)
Email: rohitashsingh_agro@india.com
Pulping and physical strength properties of bodha and carrot grass as raw material for hanmade paper making
Author Name: R.K. Jain, A.K. Sharma, Atul Kumar and Sushilkumar
DOI:                  IJWS-2008-40-1&2 Supplymentary-24 Page No:88-91
Volume: 40 2008 Full length articles
Keywords:

Chloroxylon coloratus, Handmade paper, Parthenium hysterophorus, Physical strength properties, Chloroxylon coloratus

Abstract:

Scarce availability and rising cost of traditionally used raw material like cotton hosiery waste has forced to search for alternate and cost effective cellulosic raw materials for sustainability and to improve its competitiveness. Bodha grass (Chloroxylon coloratus) and carrot grass (Parthenium hysterophorus) as lingo-cellulosic raw material were evaluated for pulping and physical strength to produce handmade paper and related products. The physico-chemical analysis of bodha grass and carrot grass indicated higher content of cellulose (77.78%) and lower contents of lignin (16%). The pulp produced by cold soda prosess was of poor quality and was not found suitable for hand madepaper making. Pulp of good strength properties was obtained by hot soda and alkaline peroxide process. Blending of bodha grass and Parthenium pulp in diferent ratio (20 to 40%) with hosiery waste pulp resulted good strength properties in respect of tensile index 20-34.5 (Nm/gm), tear index (13-25.00 mN.m2/gm) and burst index (1.9-3.0 kPa. m2/gm) making it suitable for producing an affordable quality of handmade paper. The possibility of utilization of these weed species to produce handmade paper may provide an opportunity for employment generation and income enhancement among the rural masses and helping in conservation of natural resources

Address: Kumarappa National Handmade Paper Institute, Sikarpura Road, Sanganer, Jaipur (Rajasthan)
Email: knhpi@sancharnet.in
Effect of cultural and chemical weed control methods on growth and yield of soybean in Vindhyanagar plateau of Madhya Pardesh
Author Name: M.D. Vyas and S.S. Kushwah
DOI:                  IJWS-2008-40-1&2 Supplymentary-25 Page No:92-94
Volume: 40 2008 Full length articles
Keywords:

Chemical control, Cultural control, Soybean, Yield

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted at Sehore (Madhya Pradesh) to evaluate the effect of various cultural and herbicidal weed control methods on the extent of weed control, growth and yield of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill]. Two hand weedings (HW) at 30 and 45 days after sowing (DAS), in situ mulching with weeds at 30 DAS, pendimethalin or clomazone applied as pre emergence both at 1.0 kg/ha supplemented with 1 HW reduced the weed density and weed bio mass siginificantly at 50 DAS. These treatments also improved yield attributes and seed yield of soybean

Address: RAK College of Agriculture, Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Sehore (Madhya Pradesh)
Email: vyasamd@rediffmail.com
Effect of urea, vermicompost and pendimethalin on nitrogen transformation in lateritic soil
Author Name: C. S. Parida, S. Mondal and B. Duary
DOI:                  IJWS-2008-40-1&2 Supplymentary-26 Page No:95-97
Volume: 40 2008 Full length articles
Keywords:

Nitrogen transformation, Urea, Vermicompost, Pendimethalin, Lateritic soil.

Abstract:

An experiment was conducted to study the effect of pendimethalin on nitrogen transformation of vermicompost and urea in lateritic soil of West Bengal. There was continuous decrease in NH4 N + content in soil, irrespective of treatments. The rate of decrease was gradual during the initial period (up to 3rd week), while it was sharp during the later part of incubation. NO3N - content showed a decreasing trend up to 4th week of incubation both in control and urea treated soil, irrespective of pendimethalin application. Thereafter, there was a sharp increase. However, such decrease in NO3N - content was not observed during the initial period in soil where vermicompost was applied. The results also suggest that on an average, vermicompost was as efficient as urea in releasing NO3N - . The mean results indicated that the urea treatments released much higher amount of mineral nitrogen (NH4 N + + NO N 3 - ) compared to vermicompost.

Address: Institute of Agriculture, Visva-Bharati, Sriniketan, (West Bengal)
Email: suchhandamondal@rediffmail.com
Bio-efficacy of SYN-8424 against grassy weeds in wheat
Author Name: S.S. Tripathi, R. Singh and Vir Pal Singh
DOI:                  IJWS-2008-40-1&2 Supplymentary-27 Page No:98-99
Volume: 40 2008 Short communications
Keywords:
Abstract:
Address: Department of Agronomy, G.B.Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar (Uttarakhand)
Email: ssltripathi@yahoo.co.in
Evaluation of post-emergence herbicides for weed control in lentil
Author Name: Radhey Shyam, O.P. Mishra and Rohitashav Singh
DOI:                  IJWS-2008-40-1&2 Supplymentary-28 Page No:100-101
Volume: 40 2008 Short communications
Keywords:
Abstract:
Address: Department of Agronomy, G.B.P.U.A. &T., Pantnagar, U.S. Nagar (Uttarakhand)
Email: talk2radhey@india.com
Studies on persistence of herbicides in soil under gram-mustard intercropping system
Author Name: Asha Arora and S. S. Tomar
DOI:                  IJWS-2008-40-1&2 Supplymentary-29 Page No:102-103
Volume: 40 2008 Short communications
Keywords:
Abstract:
Address: AICRP-Weed Control, R.V.S.K.V.V., College of Agriculture, Gwalior (Madhya Pradesh)
Email: ashaaroragw@gmail.com
Effect of triasulfuron, triasulfuron + pretilachlor and bensulfuron-methyl on nutrients uptake by crop and weeds in transplanted rice
Author Name: Ramphool Puniya, P. C. Pandey, P.S. Bisht and Jitendra Kurmar
DOI:                  IJWS-2008-40-1&2 Supplymentary-30 Page No:104-105
Volume: 40 2008 Short communications
Keywords:
Abstract:
Address: Departmant of Agronomy, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar (Uttrakhand)
Email: rp_puniya@yahoo.co.in
Studies on harvest time residue of isoproturon in soil, wheat grain and straw
Author Name: H.K. Sachan, Virpal Singh, S.S. Tripathi and D. Krishna
DOI:                  IJWS-2008-40-1&2 Supplymentary-31 Page No:106-107
Volume: 40 2008 Short communications
Keywords:
Abstract:
Address: College of Agriculture G.B.Pant University of Agriculture Technology, Pantnagar(Uttarakhand)
Email: sachanhk@gmail.com
Training needs of rural women involved in weed management and related activities
Author Name: P.K. Singh
DOI:                  IJWS-2008-40-1&2 Supplymentary-32 Page No:108-108
Volume: 40 2008 Short communications
Keywords:
Abstract:
Address: National Research Centre for Weed Science, Maharajpur, Adhartal, Jabalpur (Madhya Pradesh)
Email: drsinghpk@gmail.com
Effect of promising herbicides on weed control efficiency and yield of wheat
Author Name: R.R. Upasani, K. Prasad and A.N. Puran
DOI:                  IJWS-2008-40-1&2 Supplymentary-33 Page No:109-110
Volume: 40 2008 Short communications
Keywords:
Abstract:
Address: Department of Agronomy,Birsa Agricultural university, Ranchi (Jharkhand)
Email: raaviupasani68@gmail.com
Impact of integrated weed management on the performance of sunflower, weed dynamics and soil mycoflora
Author Name: Ashish Bhan and S.S. Kolhe
DOI:                  IJWS-2008-40-1&2 Supplymentary-34 Page No:111-112
Volume: 40 2008 Short communications
Keywords:
Abstract:
Address: Department of Agronomy, Indira Gandhi Agriculture University, Raipur (Chattisgarh)
Email: ashishbhan2@rediffmail.com
Efficacy of herbicides on weed infestation and seed yield of fenugreek
Author Name: S.S. Tripathi and Vir Pal Singh
DOI:                  IJWS-2008-40-1&2 Supplymentary-35 Page No:113-114
Volume: 40 2008 Short communications
Keywords:
Abstract:
Address: Department of Agronomy, G.B.Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar(Uttarakhand)
Email: ssltripathi@yahoo.co.in