Prin ISSN 0253-8040
Online ISSN 0974-8164

Indian Journal of

Weed Science

Editorial board


Dr. Sushilkumar
Directorate of Weed Research
Maharajpur, Adhartal, Jabalpur - 482004 (MP), INDIA
Mobile - +91 9425186747
Email- editorisws@gmail
Dr. A.N. Rao
Hydarabad, INDIA
Mobile Number: +91 9440372165
Email: adusumilli.narayanarao@gmail.com

Dr.J.S. Mishra
Patna, INDIA
Mobile - +91 9494240904
Email- jsmishra31@gmail.com

Editors

Dr. M.D. Reddy, (Hyderabad)
Mobile Number: .................
Email: ..................
Dr. N. Prabhakaran (Coimbatore)
Mobile - +91 ..................
Email- .................
Dr. Gulshan Mahajan (Ludhiana)
Mobile - +91 9417352312
Email- mahajangulshan@rediffmail.com
Dr. Ashok Yadav (Patna)
Mobile Number: +91 9416995523
Email: aky444@gmail.com
Dr. Suresh Gautam (Himachal Pradesh)
Mobile - +91 9418150836
Email- skg_63@yahoo.com
Dr. C. Sarthambal (Jabalpur)
Mobile - +91 9943446016
Email- saratha6@gmail.com
Dr. P. Janaki (Coimbatore)
Mobile Number: 9443936160
Email: janakibalamurugan@rediffmail.com
Dr. V.S.G.R. Naidu (Rajahmundry)
Mobile - +91 8790819002
Email- naidudwsr@gmail.comm
Dr. T. Ram Prakash (Hyderabad)
Mobile - +91 ...............
Email- ..................
Dr. T.K. Das (New Delhi)
Mobile Number: 9868128266
Email: tkdas64@gmail.com
Dr. K.A. Gopinath (Hyderabad)
Mobile - +91 9177506238
Email- gopinath@crida.in
Dr. Narendra Kumar (Kanpur)
Mobile - +91 9473929876
Email- nkumar.icar@gmail.com
Weed management in direct-seeded rice
Author Name: V. Pratap Singh, S.P. Singh, V.C. Dhyani, A. Banga, A. Kumar, K. Satyawali and N. Bisht
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00059.9 Page No:233-246
Volume: 48 2016 Review article
Keywords:

Direct-seeded rice, Rice production systems, Weeds, Weed management, Weed shifting

Abstract:

Rice (Oryza sativa), the staple food of more than half of the population of the world, is an important target to provide food security and livelihoods for millions. Direct seeding of rice (DSR) refers to the process of establishing the crop from seeds sown in the field rather than by transplanting seedling from the nursery. Before the advent of Green revolution and adoption of irrigation, rainfed rice was often broadcasted into moist soil and yields were low, variable and highly prone to weed competition. Weed spectrum and degree of infestation in rice field are often determined by rice ecosystems and establishment methods. Research evidences at different places shown around 20-100% losses due to weeds in DSR such as Echinochloa spp., Leptochloa spp., Cyanotis spp., Commelina sp., Digitaria spp. and Alternanthera sp. Integrated weed management approach based on the critical period of crop weed competition, involving different direct and indirect control measures, has been developed and widely adopted by farmers to overcome weed problem in DSR  in a sustainable way. Stale seed bed combined with herbicide (paraquat/glyphosate) and zero till results in better control. About 53% lower density was recorded due to stale seed bed. Brown manuring of Sesbania reduces weed population by 50%. Mulches, crop rotation and rice cultivars like ‘Narender 359’ and ‘Sarjoo 52’ were found better for Indo- Gangetic plains. Application of penoxsulam 25 g/ha as broad-spectrum, azimsulfuron + metsulfuron-methyl for Cyperus spp., pendimethalin at 1.25 kg/ha for Echinochloa spp. were found suitable for chemical weed management.Weed-competitive and allelopathic rice varieties, seed priming for increased weed competitiveness, higher seeding density should be considered as a management strategy.

Address: G.B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar, U.S. Nagar, Uttarakhand 263 145
Email: vpratapsingh@rediffmail.com
Herbicides combinations for control of complex weed flora in transplanted rice
Author Name: Simerjeet Kaur, Tarundeep Kaur and Makhan S. Bhullar
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00060.5 Page No:247-250
Volume: 48 2016 Full length articles
Keywords:

Herbicides, Rainfall, Tank-mixture, Transplanted rice, Weeds

Abstract:

The puddled transplanted rice is infested with mix of grasses, sedges and broad-leaf weeds in Northern India. For control of mixed weed flora, different herbicide combinations were evaluated in a field experiment conducted in summer of 2012 and 2013 at Ludhiana. The experimental field was infested with Echinochloa spp., Ischaemum rugosum, Caesulia axillaris, Cyperus iria and Ammania baccifera. The performance of pre- or early post-emergence herbicides applied alone was poorer during 2012 (dry year). The differential rainfall during both the years influenced the efficacy of herbicides. The herbicide treatments integrated with hand weeding recorded good weed control during both the years. Pre-emergence application of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl at 20 g/ha + one hand weeding or bispyribac-sodium 25 g/ha applied as alone or as tank-mix with ethoxysulfuron 18.7 g/ha recorded the highest weed control efficacy, rice grain yield and net returns during both the years and seemed to be the best ways of controlling complex weed flora and enhancing productivity and profitability from transplanted rice.

Address: Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab 141 004
Email: simer@pau.edu
Azimsulfuron as an effective herbicides against sedges in transplanted rice
Author Name: Rohitashav Singh, Rekha, Ajay Gupta, Tej Pratap, Sanjeev Kumar and Akhilesh Kumar
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00061.7 Page No:251-253
Volume: 48 2016 Full length articles
Keywords:

Azimsulfuron, Sedges, Surfactant, Transplanted rice, Weed management

Abstract:

A field experiment was carried out at Pantnagar during Kharif seasons of 2013 and 2014 to know the bio-efficacy of different doses of azimsulfuron 50 DF against sedges in transplanted rice. The soil of the experimental field was clay loam in texture, medium in organic carbon (0.67%), available phosphorus (29.6 kg/ha) and potassium (176.4 kg/ha) with pH 7.2. Major sedges were: Scirpus roylei, Cyperus iria, Cyperus difformis and Fimbristylis miliacea. Application of azimsulfuron 17.5, 26.25 and 35 g/ha with 0.2% surfactant and 35 g/ha without surfactant provided complete control of Scirpus roylei, Cyperus iria and Cyperus difformis. The lowest dry matter of weeds was recorded with azimsulfuron with 0.2% surfactant from 17.5 to 35 g/ha, which was found at par with azimsulfuron 35 g/ha without surfactant. Among herbicidal treatments, the highest grain yield (6.12 and 6.09 t/ha) was obtained in azimsulfuron + 0.2% surfactant at 26.25 and  35 g/ha, which was significantly similar to azimsulfuron + 0.2% surfactant 17.5 g/ha and azimsulfuron 35 g/ha without surfactant.

Address: Department of Agronomy College of Agriculture, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology Pantnagar U.S.Nagar Uttarakhand 263 145
Email: singh.rohitash5@gmail.com
Sole and combined application of herbicides on composite weed flora of transplanted rice
Author Name: K. Charan Teja, B. Duary and Subhaprada Dash
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00062.9 Page No:254-258
Volume: 48 2016 Full length articles
Keywords:

Azimsulfuron, Combined application, Pretilachlor, Pyrazosulfuron-ethyl, Transplanted rice, Weed management 

Abstract:

Field experiments were conducted during Kharif (wet) seasons of 2014 and 2015 at Agricultural Farm, Institute of Agriculture, Visva-Bharati, Sriniketan, West Bengal, with rice variety ‘MTU-7029’ to study the effect of sole and combined application of different herbicides on growth of composite weed flora and productivity of wet season transplanted rice. Eleven treatments were assigned in a randomized block design with three replications. Echinochloa colona and Paspalum distichium among the grasses; Cyperus iria, among the sedges and Ludwigia parviflora among the broad-leaved weeds were predominant throughout the cropping period. Azimsulfuron at 35 + 2, 4-D at 500 g/ha at 25 DAT effectively controlled the complex weed flora recorded at 50 DAT which was statistically at par with pretilachlor at 750 g + pyrazosulfuron-ethyl at 25 g/ha at 3 DAT. Weed competition reduced the grain yield of rice to the tune of 33-35%. Lower values of weed density, total weed dry weight and higher values of weed control efficiency and yield of rice were registered with combined application of azimsulfuron at 35 g + 2, 4-D at 500 g/ha at 25 DAT and it was followed by pretilachlor at 750 g + pyrazosulfuron-ethyl at 25 g/ha at 3 DAT. These treatments could be recommended for managing complex weed flora and obtaining higher yield of transplanted Kharif (wet) rice in the lateritic belt of West Bengal, India.

Address: Institute of Agriculture, Visva-Bharati, Sriniketan, West Bengal 731 236
Email: bduary@yahoo.co.in
Mechanized weed management to enhance productivity in System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
Author Name: R. Mahender Kumar, T. Vidhan Singh, B. Sreedevi, K. Surekha, Ch. Padmavathi, M.S. Prasad, B. Gangaiah, T. Sudhaker, D. Srinivas, L.V. Subbarao, P. Muthuraman, Mangaldeep Tuti and V. Ravindra Babu
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00063.0 Page No:259-261
Volume: 48 2016 Full length articles
Keywords:

Mechanised weed management, System of Rice Intensification (SRI), Productivity of rice

Abstract:

Rice ecosystems including irrigated rice in India is infested with complex weed flora including semi-aquatic and aquatic weeds which cause yield losses from 15 to 76% in rice crop. ICAR-Indian Institute of Rice Research (IIRR) under All India Co-ordinated Rice Improvement Programme (AICRIP) has conducted experiments across India (11 locations) to evaluate System of Rice Intensification (SRI) method, assessing their potential and the effects of individual SRI practices for enhancing productivity under different agro-ecological conditions compared to standard normal transplanting (NTP) method. SRI method recorded significantly higher grain yield (6.22  t/ha) followed by integrated crop management (ICM) (6.07 t/ha), standard practice of transplanting (5.60  t/ha) and direct seeding with drum seeder (5.13  t/ha). The effect of cono-weedings on grain yield indicated the superiority of 4 times cono weeding (10, 20, 30 and 40 DAT) which recorded better yields over two times cono weeding and the reduction in yield to the tune of 5.7- 11.8% by 2 times cono weeding i.e. 10 and 20 DAT (5.7% less) and herbicide application (11.8% less), respectively. Based on multi-location testing, results indicated that SRI has the potential to enhance the productivity of the rice with reduced inputs in different agro-ecological situation and soil types across the country and weeding by cono weeder with reduction in drudgery of weeding in rice.

Address: ICAR-Indian Institute of Rice Research, Hyderabad, Telangana 500 030
Email: kumarrm213@gmail.com
Grassy weed management in aerobic rice in Indo-Gangetic plains
Author Name: Pabitra Adhikary
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00064.2 Page No:262-265
Volume: 48 2016 Full length articles
Keywords:

Aerobic rice, Grasses, Herbicides, Weed control efficacy, Yield 

Abstract:

A replicated field experiment was conducted during 2014 and 2015 to determine the efficacy of herbicides under aerobic soil conditions for selecting suitable herbicide dose towards successful grassy weed management in rice at Krishi Vigyan Kendra Farm, Ashokenagar, West Bengal, India. The results clearly indicated the positive response of herbicide on grassy weeds. Among the herbicide treatments, metamifop 10 EC 125 g/ha resulted in lower number of weed population, (15.67 and 10.90) and higher weed control efficiency 91.55% and 92.60%), during 2014 and 2015, respectively. On an average 64.5% grain yield was recorded over the control. Application of metamifop at 2-3 leaf stage could be the possible alternative options for effective and economic weed control in rice under aerobic system to avoid development of herbicide resistance in weed. 

Address: North 24 PGs Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Ashokenagar, West Bengal 743 223
Email: pabitra.bdp@gmail.com
Herbicide combinations for weed management in direct-seeded rice
Author Name: S.S. Rana, Dinesh Badiyala, Neelam Sharma, Rajinder Kumar, Rajesh Thakur, Suresh Kumar and Pawan Pathania
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00065.4 Page No:266-271
Volume: 48 2016 Full length articles
Keywords:

Chemical control, Direct-seeded rice, Impacts, Herbicide mixtures, Weeds, Weed management, Yield

Abstract:

Ten treatments were evaluated during Kharif 2013, 2014 and 2015 at Palampur (Himachal Pradesh) to study their impacts on weeds, crop and economics. Echinochloa colona was the most competitive weed followed by Aeschynomene indica and Panicum dichotomiflorum. Oxadiargyl fb bispyribac, pyrazosulfuron fb bispyribac, pendimethalin fb bispyribac fb manual weeding and bispyribac + chlorimuron + metsulfuron-methyl gave significantly lower count of E. colona and Panicum dichotomiflorum. The economic threshold levels (no/m2) with the weed management practices studied varied between 2.5-17.8/m2. With every 1 weed/m2 increase in density, the grain yield of dry-seeded rice was reduce by 62.4 kg/ha. Manual weeding engaged more labour and had higher cost tending to increase the economic threshold over herbicidal treatments. Cost of weed control under herbicidal/integrated treatments was 14 - 49% of weed free and 19.9 - 69.3% of that under mechanical weeding. Oxadiargyl fb bispyribac resulted in highest net return due to weed control. Crop resistance index and efficiency index were highest and weed index was minimum under pendimethalin fb bispyribac fb manual weeding. Weed management index, agronomic management index and integrated weed management index were highest under pendimethalin fb manual weeding followed by bispyribac, pendimethalin fb bispyribac and mechanical weeding. The overall performance index (OPi) was highest under pendimethalin fb bispyribac fb manual weeding (1.34) followed by oxadiargyl fb bispyribac (1.31), pyrazosulfuron fb bispyribac (1.18), bispyriac + chlorimuron + metsulfuron (1.14) and bisppyribac (1.12). Weeds reduced the grain yield of rice by 67.1%.

Address: Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Palampur, Himachal Pradesh 176 062
Email: ranass_dee@rediffmail.com
Effective post-emergence herbicides for weed control in rice nurseries
Author Name: Buta Singh Dhillon and Makhan S. Bhullar
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00066.6 Page No:272-274
Volume: 48 2016 Full length articles
Keywords:

Bispyribac-sodium, Post-emergence herbicides, Rice Nursery, Sedges, Weed

Abstract:

On farm experiments were conducted during Kharif seasons of 2011 and 2012 to study efficacy of post-emergence herbicides bispyribac-sodium 25 g/ha for broad-spectrum weed control in rice nursery. Among the different treatments, post-emergence application of bispyribac-sodium 25 g/ha applied at 15 DAS (days after sowing) significantly reduced total weed density with weed control efficiency of 90.9 to 97.6% for Echinochloa crus-galli, Trianthema portulacastrum and Cyperus iria. Among other treatments, pre-emergence application of pretilachlor + safener 0.15 kg/ha also recorded significantly lower weed density as compared to control (unweeded). Although weed control efficiency of this treatment was relatively higher for E. crus-galli (84.7%) but for T. portulacastrum and C. iria, this treatment recorded weed control efficiency of 75.9 and 71.2%, respectively. Farmers practice (increased seed rate 100 g/m2) also recoded significantly lower weed density as compared to control (unweeded) but the weed control efficiency was quite low against E. crus-galli (36.8%) and C. iria (28.1%); however, it was relatively higher for T. portulacastrum (66.0%) with mean of 43.7%.

Address: Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Faridkot, Punjab 151 203
Email: bsdhillon@pau.edu
Herbicides for weed management in direct dry-seeded rice
Author Name: Tej Pratap, V. Pratap Singh, Rohitashav Singh and Rekha
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00067.8 Page No:275-278
Volume: 48 2016 Full length articles
Keywords:

Chemical control, Direct dry-seeded rice, Grain yield, Herbicides, Weed control 

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted during Kharif seasons of 2010 and 2011 to evaluate the efficacy of different herbicides and their combinations in managing weeds of direct dry-seeded rice. The major weeds were Echinochloa colona, Echinochloa crus-galli, Leptochloa chinensis among grasses, Caesulia axillaris and Trianthema monogyna among broad-leaved weeds and Cyperus rotundus among sedge. The lowest total weed density was recorded with azimsulfuron 35 g/ha and cyhalofop-butyl + ready mix of chlorimuron + metsulfuron 60 + 20 g/ha, which were at par with each other followed by fenoxaprop + ethoxysulfuron 60 + 15 g/ha and twice hand weeding at 20 and 40 days after seeding (DAS). The lowest weed biomass was recorded with combined application of fenoxaprop + ethoxysulfuron 60 + 15 g/ha and fenoxaprop + ready mix of chlorimuron + metsulfuron 60 + 20 g/ha. The highest weed control efficiency was recorded with twice hand weeding at 20 and 40 DAS (89.9%) followed by fenoxaprop + ethoxysulfuron 60 + 15 g/ha, fenoxaprop + ready mix of chlorimuron + metsulfuron 60 + 20 g/ha, bispyribac-sodium 25 g/ha and fenoxaprop 60 g/ha over the weedy check. The higher grain yield (3.50 t/ha) was recorded with twice hand weeding (20 and 40 DAS), which was at par with fenoxaprop + ethoxysulfuron 60 + 15 g/ha followed by bispyribac-sodium 25 g/ha alone and fenoxaprop + ready mix of chlorimuron + metsulfuron 60 + 20 g/ha.

Address: Department of Agronomy College of Agriculture, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology Pantnagar, U.S.Nagar Uttarakhand 263145
Email: drtpsingh2010@gmail.com
Integrated use of herbicides to enhance yield and economics of direct-seeded rice
Author Name: S.S. Pinjari, S.B. Gangawane, N.V. Mhaskar, S.A. Chavan, V.G. Chavan and D.N. Jagtap
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00068.X Page No:279-283
Volume: 48 2016 Full length articles
Keywords:

Direct-seeded rice, Economics, Herbicides, Weed control, Yield attributes, Yield 

Abstract:

    A field study was conducted at Dr. B.S. KKV, Dapoli (Maharashtra) farm in Kharif seasons (2012 to 2015) on rice to evaluate the effect of different herbicide and herbicide combination on yield attributes, yield and economics. Based on pooled analysis, significantly lower dry weight of grasses, sedges and broad-leaved weeds and higher yield attributes and yield were recorded in weed free check (HW at 20, 40, and 60 DAS) followed by pendimethalin as pre-emergence (PE) 1000 g/ha at 0 to 2 DAS fb manual weeding at 25-30 DAS and pendimethalin 1000 g/ha at 0 to 2 DAS (PE) fb bispyribac-Na 25 g/ha at 20 DAS (3 to 4 leaf stage) fb manual weeding (45 DAS). The highest weed control index (95.00%) was recorded by weed free check (HW at 20, 40, and 60 DAS) followed by pendimethalin 1000 g/ha at 0 to 2  DAS fb manual weeding at 25-30 DAS (92.84%) and pendimethalin 1000 g/ha at 0 to2 DAS fb bispyribac-Na 25 g/ha at 20 DAS fb manual weeding at 45 DAS (89.87%). The lowest weed index was recorded with the application of pendimethalin 1000 g/ha at 0 to 2 DAS fb manual weeding (25-30 DAS) and pendimethalin 1000 g/ha at 0 to 2 DAS  fb bispyribac-Na 25 g/ha at 20 DAS (3 to 4 leaf stage) fb manual weeding at 45 DAS. The highest net returns with B-C ratio of 1.28 was obtained in the application of pendimethalin 1000 g/ha at 0 to 2 DAS (PE) fb manual weeding (25-30 DAS) followed by weed free check (HW at 20, 40 and 60 DAS). 

Address: Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, Dr. Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth, Dapoli, Maharashtra 415 712
Email: pinjari94222@gmail.com
Weed flora of raised bunds and undulated lands growing along the rice fields of Kashmir Valley
Author Name: Aijaz Hassan Ganie, Anzar A. Khuroo, Bilal A. Tali, Zafar A. Reshi and B.A. Wafai
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00069.1 Page No:284-286
Volume: 48 2016 Full length articles
Keywords:

Bund weeds, Management, Semi-aquatic, Terrestrial, Weed flora

Abstract:

For an effective weed management in the rice fields, it is crucial to identify the actual weeds as well as those growing on the raised bunds and undulated lands nearby rice fields. The present study was carried out with this aim to record the weeds growing on bunds and nearby undulated lands of the rice fields in Kashmir Valley, so that not only the actual weeds inside the rice field but also the nearby growing weed species that may pose future risk could also be targeted under the weed management practices. During the present study, 58 weed species belonging to 45 genera and 27 families were recorded along raised bunds and undulated lands of rice fields in Kashmir Valley. Of these, 38 weed species were terrestrial and 20 were semi-aquatic species; and it is the latter set of species that can become the future weeds of rice fields in the region.

Address: Department of Botany, University of Kashmir, Kargil Campus 194 105
Email: aijazku@gmail.com
Irrigation schedule and crop geometry effect on weed management in maize + green gram intercropping system
Author Name: S. Mohapatra, A.K. Mohanty, S.K. Tripathy, B.R. Nayak, N. Panigrahy, P.K. Samant and S. Lenka
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00070.8 Page No:287-289
Volume: 48 2016 Full length articles
Keywords:

Crop geometry, Irrigation schedule, Intercropping, Maize + green gram, Weed control

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted under West Central Table Land Zone, Odisha during winter (Rabi) seasons of 2013-14 and 2014-15 to study the effect of irrigation schedule and planting geometry on weed control and productivity in maize + green gram intercropping. The results revealed that irrigating the crop at 0.8 IW/CPE recorded lowest weed density (23.6/ m2) and weed dry matter (10.9 g/ m2). This moisture regime also produced highest yield of individual component (3.36 t/ha for maize and 0.22 t/ha for greengram) of the system and the highest maize equivalent yield (4.4 t/ha). Intercropping of maize with green gram irrespective of their row ratio effectively reduced the weed density and dry weight at 60 days after sowing compared to pure cropping of maize. The grain yield of maize in all the intercropping system except 1:2 row ratio was statistically at par with its yield in pure stand. However the productivity of green gram significantly reduced in intercropping system compared to its sole cropping (0.35 t/ha). Maize equivalent yield in 2:2 planting pattern was remarkably high (4.87 t/ha) compared to other planting geometries tested. The highest B:C ratio was recorded at 0.80 IW/CPE (2.25) and with 2:2 planting pattern of maize + green gram (2.28).

Address: Regional Research and Technology Transfer Station, Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Chiplima, Sambalpur, Odisha 768 025
Email: sanjukta_m@yahoo.co.in
Weed management in no-tilled dribbling maize for small land holder
Author Name: Pijush Kanti Mukherjee and Anwesh Rai
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00071.X Page No:290-293
Volume: 48 2016 Full length articles
Keywords:

Atrazine, Chemical control, No-tilled dibbling maize, Pendimethalin, Small land holder

Abstract:

A field experiment was carried out during winter (Rabi) seasons of 2012-13 and 2013-14 at research farm of Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Pundibari, Cooch Behar, West Bengal with the objectives to study the weed control practices in no-tilled dibbling maize within rice residues. The experiment consisted of eight treatments, comprising of varying doses of 2,4-D (post-emergence treatment), atrazine with sequential application as pre-emergence and post-emergence treatment, pendimethalin followed by atrazine, weedy check and complete weed-free treatments, laid out in randomised block design (RBD) with four replications. Highest weed control efficiency and lowest weed index values were registered by  atrazine 1.0 kg/ha as pre-emergence + atrazine 1.1 kg/ha as post-emergence. The dominant weed flora were the broad-leaved weeds Polygonum persicaria, P. pensylvanicum, P. orientale, and the grasses Digitaria ciliaris, Setaria glauca. Among the weed control practices, season long weed free condition recorded the highest grain/kernel yield of maize (9.52 and 10.6 t/ha) during both the years, which was statistically at par with atrazine 1.0 kg/ha as pre-emergence + atrazine 1.1 kg/ha as post-emergence (9.3 and 10.4 t/ha) and atrazine 0.75 kg/ha as pre-emergence + atrazine 1.1 kg/ha as post-emergence (9.07 and 10.12 t/ha). The atrazine 1.0 kg/ha as pre-emergence + atrazine 1.1 kg/ha as post-emergence gave maximum net return of (` 93,650/ha and ` 1,21,050/ha) and maximum net return per rupee invested (1.88 and 2.31).

 

Address: Department of Agronomy, Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Cooch Behar, West Bengal 736 164
Email: pkm_agronomy@yahoo.co.in
Post-emergence herbicides for weed management in groundnut
Author Name: B.N. Shwetha, M.R. Umesh and M.B. Agnal
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00072.1 Page No:294-296
Volume: 48 2016 Full length articles
Keywords:

Economics, Groundnut, Post-emergence herbicides, Weed control efficiency, Weed index

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted at Agricultural Research Station, Kawadimatti, Karnataka during Kharif 2012 and 2013 to study the efficacy of post-emergence herbicides for weed management in groundnut. The trial comprised of eight treatments, out of which five treatments were of post-emergence herbicides, viz. quizalofop-ethyl, propaquizafiop, imazethapyr, chlorimuron-ethyl, fenoxaprop-p-ethyl. These were compared with, pre-emergence spray of pendimethalin weed free and weedy treatments. Among the post-emergence herbicides, significantly higher pod yield (2.01 t/ha) was recorded with  imazethapyre, which was at par with quizalofop-ethyl (1.91 t/ha) and propaquizafop (1.87 t/ha). Imazethapyre also recorded higher net return (Rs/ha) and B:C ratio. Higher pod yield of these treatments was due to significantly lower total weeds density, weed biomass and higher weed control efficiency. 

Address: Agricultural Research Station, Kawadimatti University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur, Karnataka 584 104
Email: shwethaagron@gmail.com
Sedges management in bottle gourd with halosulfuron-methyl
Author Name: Anil Kumar, R. Puniya, Ashu Sharma, Amit Mahajan and Lobzang Stanzen
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00073.3 Page No:297-299
Volume: 48 2016 Full length articles
Keywords:

Bottle gourd, Cyperus, Effect on succeeding crop, Halosulfuron-methyl, Weed control efficiency

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of halosulfuron-methyl for the control of Cyperus spp. in bottle gourd. The treatments constituted of halosulfuron-methyl at two doses (52.5 and 67.5 g/ha) applied at 3-4 leaf stages of sedges, which was compared with recommended dose of metribuzin (490 g/ha) as pre-emergence, two hand weeding (20 and 35 DAS) and unweeded check. The results revealed that all the weed control treatments significantly reduced Cyperus spp. density as compared to unweeded check except metribuzin 490 g/ha. The lowest weed biomass of Cyperus spp. was recorded with application of halosulfuron-methyl at higher dose (67.5 g/ha) which was significantly lower than halosulfuron-methyl 52.5 g/ha and metribuzin 490 g/ha. Significantly highest fruit yield of bottle gourd was recorded with application of halosulfuron-methyl 67.5 g/ha than other treatments. The herbicide tested in this study did not show any adverse effect on germination and grain yield of succeeding wheat crop.

Address: Division of Agronomy, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Main Campus Chatha, Jammu, Jammu & Kashmir 180 009
Email: anillau@gmail.com
Weed management in berseem
Author Name: V.K. Kauthale, P.S. Takawale and S.D. Patil
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00074.5 Page No:300-303
Volume: 48 2016 Full length articles
Keywords:

Berseem, Forage yield, Seed yield, Weed management, Weed control efficiency

Abstract:

Experiments was conducted during Rabi season of three consecutive years from 2012 to 2015 to study the effect of weed management on forage and seed yield of berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) in medium black soil. The treatment combinations were application of pre-emergence herbicides viz. pendimethalin and oxyflourfen and post-emergence herbicide, viz. imazethapyr in different proportion along with weedy check (control). Based on the pooled mean data for three years, it was revealed that green fodder, dry matter and crude protein yields (34.39, 4.53 and 0.81 t/ha respectively) were significantly higher in treatment combination of oxyflourfen 0.1 kg/ha + imazethapyr 0.1 kg/ha immediate after harvest of first cut. The same treatment combination recorded highest seed yield (0.47 t/ha) and straw yield (5.87 t/ha) with net monetary returns of ` 1,34,048/ha, benefit cost ratio of 3.43 and maize fodder equivalent yield of 72.68 t/ha. The lowest weed dry matter yield (0.05 t/ha) and highest weed control efficiency (80.97%) were recorded in same treatment combination. 

Address: BAIF Development Research Foundation, Urulikanchan, Pune, Maharashtra 412 202
Email: vkkauthale@gmail.com
Pre- and post-emergent herbicides for control of castor weeds
Author Name: A.H. Kumar Naik, S. Sridhara and M.T. Sanjay
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00075.7 Page No:304-308
Volume: 48 2016 Full length articles
Keywords:

Castor, Economics, Pendimethalin, Trifluralin, Weed control

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted during 2012 to 2014 to find out most suitable and cost effective weed management practice for rain fed castor on the medium black soils of central dry zone of Karnataka. The experiment consisted of ten treatments involving two pre-emergence herbicides (trifluralin and pendimethalin) alone and in combination with hand weeding / intercultivation, inter-cropping of castor + groundnut (1:3 ratio), three weedings (20, 40 and 60 DAS), farmers’ practice (one weeding at 20 DAS fb two inter-cultures at 45 and 60 DAS), two post–emergence herbicides (quizalofop-ethyl and fenoxaprop-p-ethyl, both at 0.05 kg/ha at 25 DAS) and weedy check. The pooled results of three seasons revealed that pre-emergence application of pendimethalin at 1.0 kg/ha fb one inter-cultivation at 40 DAS resulted in better weed control efficiency and seed yield (1.61 t/ha) and B:C ratio (4.3) comparable to farmers’ practice (1.33 t/ha) and three weeding (1.99 t/ha). Herbicides controlled grasses gave moderate yield comparable to farmers’ fields. Weedy check reduced the yield by 76% due to severe competition offered by grasses and broad-leaf weeds. The large scale demonstration on five farmers’ fields in Chitradurga district also revealed that pendimethalin at 1.0 kg/ha fb one inter-cultivation at 40 DAS (1.48 t/ha and 3.90) gave seed yield and B:C ratio comparable to farmers’ practice of weed control (1.49 t/ha and 3.70).

Address: Department of Agronomy, AICRP on Castor, Hiriyur. University of Agricultural and Horticultural Sciences, Shivamogga, Karnataka 577 216
Email: kumarahphd@gmail.com
Weed density assessment with crop establishment in forage crops
Author Name: A. Lahdhiri and M. Mekki
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00076.9 Page No:309-315
Volume: 48 2016 Full length articles
Keywords:

Competitiveness, Crop establishment, Crop management, Forage, Weed density 

Abstract:

Biodiversity is a key to achieve sustainable agriculture. The use of forage crop can promote biodiversity in small holder farming. This study analyzed the establishment of three forage crops (berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.), ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) and oat (Avena sativa L.) with the aim to introduce them into the farmer’s crop system. Their competitive ability against weeds was also evaluated. Establishment rate was 33, 40.8 and 97% for berseem, ryegrass and oat, respectively. The low establishment for berseem and ryegrass may be attributed to inadequate sowing period characterized by high temperature and low soil humidity. This is in addition to the allelopathic effect of previous crop for berseem. There was a statistically significant interaction between forage crops and sampling dates on weed density (p < 0.000). Berseem was able to suppress weed more than other crops with the lowest weed densities in three sampling dates (56.7, 37.3 and 23.7 plants/m2). Berseem clover was more competitive due to its leaf area and plant architecture as a leguminous plant. Furthermore, its ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen permits to suffer less than ryegrass and oat in deficiency of  fertilizer. At third sampling date, ryegrass was able to restrain weed density with an intermediate developed canopy. It did not differ significantly from weed density in berseem. Oat crop was the most weed invaded along the season. Weeds represented 43.2% and 47.8% in second and third sampling date, respectively. Poor soil, fertilizer absence and lack of moisture influenced negatively oat growth causing this invasion. A negative Pearson correlation (p<0.001) between crop biomass and weed density was assessed in berseem and oat indicating that weed competition was translated into a decrease of these crop biomass. Crop management created a more favorable environment for the success of these forage crops in the small holders crop system.

Address: Department of Biological Science and Plant Protection, UR.04AGRO4 Higher Agronomic Institute of Chott Meriem, Sousse University, BP 47, 4042 Chott-Meriem (Sousse), Tunisia 
Email: anissalahdhiri@yahoo.fr
Herbicides effect on soil enzyme dynamics in direct-seeded rice
Author Name: S.R. Arya, and M. Ameena
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00077.0 Page No:316-318
Volume: 48 2016 Short communications
Keywords:

Dehydrogenase, Dry seeded rice, Low dose herbicides, Soil enzymes, Urease activity

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of new generation herbicides on soil enzymes, viz. dehydrogenase and urease for getting a better understanding of the possible response of soil microbial activities to low dose herbicides in dry sown rice. The treatments included different combinations of pre-emergent herbicides (bensulfuron-methyl + pretilachlor, pyrazosulfuron-ethyl) with post-emergent herbicide (azimsulfuron) and hand weeding along with a traditional herbicide oxyfluorfen. The effect of herbicides on soil enzyme dynamics showed that there was an increase in soil dehydrogenase enzyme activity (expressed in triphenylformazanhydrolysed /g of soil /24 hr) from 15 to 45 DAS after an initial decline. The activity of urease (expressed as urea hydrolysed per gram of soil per hr) as influenced by the herbicide treatments was not inhibited by any of the herbicide treatments. Hence it could be inferred that herbicides either used as pre-emergence or post-emergence remains in the active top soil and cause alternations in soil enzyme activities with respect to different days after treatments. The treated herbicides affected the soil enzyme activity but none of them registered highly negative effect on any of the soil enzyme activity in the present study under dry sowing.

Address: Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, Vellayani, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 522
Email: drameenaubaid@gmail.com
Nitrogen and weed management in direct-seeded aerobic rice
Author Name: Gaurav Jain, C.S. Singh, Ashok Kumar Singh, Arvind Kumar Singh and S.K. Singh
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00078.2 Page No:319-320
Volume: 48 2016 Short communications
Keywords:

Aerobic rice, Nitrogen levels, Upland rice, Weed management

Abstract:

Application of 125 kg N/ha and in a planting Sesbania in between rice row + pendimethalin PE 0.75 kg/ha + 2, 4-D at 0.8 kg/ha at 25 days after sowing found to be best option for both growth and yield of rice. 

Address: Department of Agronomy, Birsa Agricultural University, Kanke, Ranchi, Jharkhand, 834006
Email: sksinghbau@gmail.com
Booster for mitigating the effect of ALS inhibiting herbicides on rice yield
Author Name: N. Nithya and T. Girija
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00079.4 Page No:321-322
Volume: 48 2016 Short communications
Keywords:

Rice, ALS inhibiting herbicides, Mitigating treatments, Yield and yield attributes

Abstract:

Study showed that the initial growth suppression due to application of post- emergent ALS inhibiting herbicides can be overcome with mitigation treatments given on the 35th day and among the treatments combined application of Urea, NAA and micronutrients gave the best results.

Address: College of Horticulture, Kerala Agricultural University, Vellanikkara, Kerala 680 656
Email: nithya29.n@gmail.com
Seeding method and weed competition effect on growth and yield of direct- seeded rice under puddled condition
Author Name: P. Saravanane and V. Chellamuthu
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00080.0 Page No:323-324
Volume: 48 2016 Short communications
Keywords:

Direct-seeded rice, weed competition

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted for direct- seeded rice under puddled irrigated condition in samba season (September, 2014 to January, 2015) at Karaikal, Puducherry Union Territory to study the influence of two direct seeding methods (wet and dry sowing) and four periods of weed competition (weedy condition for early 15, 30, 45 and 60 days of crop growth) in split plot design. Weed density and dry weight was not significantly influenced either by sowing with wet or dry seeds but significantly influenced by weed competition. Maximum grain yield, lower weed density and dry weight were recorded with the plots maintained weed free throughout the crop period except the initial 15 days after sowing (DAS).

Address: Department of Agronomy, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru College of Agriculture & Research Institute, Karaikal, Puducherry 609 603
Email: psaravanane@rediffmail.com
Herbicide combinations for broad spectrum weed control in wheat
Author Name: O.P. Meena, V. Nepalia, Dilip Singh, Arvind Verma and Roshan Choudhary
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00081.2 Page No:325-327
Volume: 48 2016 Short communications
Keywords:

Herbicides mixtures, nutrient uptake, weed dynamics, wheat

Abstract:

Field trial was conducted during Rabi 2015-2016 at Udaipur to find out an appropriate herbicidal recommendation to augment wheat productivity. The experiment consisted of thirteen treatments (pendimethalin 750 g/ha, sulfosulfuron 25 g/ha,  metribuzin 210 g/ha, clodinafop 60 g/ha, pendimethalin fb sulfosulfuron at 1000 + 18 g/ha, pendimethalin + metribuzin at 1000 + 175 g/ha, sulfosulfuron + metsulfuron 30 + 2 g/ha, pinoxaden + metsulfuron 60+4 g/ha, mesosulfuron + iodosulfuron at 12 + 2.4 g/ha, clodinafop + metsulfuron at 60 + 4 g/ha, one hand weeding at 30 DAS, two hand weedings at 30 and 45 DAS, weedy check) were tested in a randomized block design in three replications. The results revealed that the mixed population of weeds comprising broad-leaf and grassy was significantly controlled by applying the herbicide mixtures than their alone applications. The sulfosulfuron + metsulfuron mixture resulted in minimum density and dry matter of weeds and NPK uptake by them. The simultaneous increase in NPK uptake by crop by applying this treatment resulted in significantly higher wheat grain yield and nets returns, though the yield and net returns were at par to that of mesosulfuron + iodosulfuron.

Address: Department of Agronomy, Rajasthan College of Agriculture, Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology Udaipur, Rajasthan 313 001
Email: vnepalia@gmail.com
Fenoxaprop-p-ethyl effect against weeds in late sown wheat
Author Name: P.R. Singh, R.K. Singh, A.K. Singh, R. Nayak and R.P.K. Singh
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00082.4 Page No:328-329
Volume: 48 2016 Short communications
Keywords:

Economics, Fenoxaprop-p-ethyl, Late sown wheat, Nitrogen uptake, Weeds, Yield

Abstract:

An experiment was conducted during Rabi season of 2010-11 at Agronomy Research Farm of NDUAT, Faizabad to assess the influence of   fenoxaprop-p-ethyl at various doses with its standard check and clodinofop on weeds, plant growth, nitrogen uptake and production of late sown wheat. All weed control treatments at different doses effectively reduced nitrogen removal by weeds and its ranges in between 2.01 to 4.62 kg/ha. Post- emergence application of fenoxaprop (Whipsuper) standard check 120 g,  fenoxaprop-p-ethyl at 100 and 120 g and Topic (clodinofop) 60 g/ha (standard check) produced significantly higher yield under delayed sown wheat.

Address: Narendra Deva University of Agriculture & Technology, Faizabad, Utter Pradesh
Email: rksinghagronomy02@gmail.com
Comparative performance of different weeding tools in maize
Author Name: Bikash Sarkar, Rakesh Kumar, J.S. Mishra and B.P. Bhatt
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00083.6 Page No:330-332
Volume: 48 2016 Short communications
Keywords:

Embodied energy, Field efficiency, Winter maize, Weeds, Weeding efficiency

Abstract:

A field experiment on weeding tools was conducted at farm of ICAR Research Complex for Eastern Region Patna during the Rabi season of 2015-16. Results revealed that treatment such as ‘khurpi’ was recorded the highest weed control efficiency (92.9%) followed by grubber (82.8%), spade (75.5%) and wheel hoe (72.2%). The highest human energy was also attained in case of ‘khurpi’ (567.62 MJ/ha) followed by spade (326.62 MJ/ha), grubber (212.62 MJ/ha) and wheel hoe (167.30 MJ/ha). The highest embodied energy was found in wheel hoe (93.18 MJ) followed by spade (45.05 MJ), grubber (20.17 MJ) and khurpi’ (10.51 MJ). The field capacity of wheel hoe was found maximum (0.008 ha/hr) where as spade was minimum (0.0002 ha/hr).  Hence, the wheel hoe was found to be the most efficient and cost effective weeding tool.

Address: ICAR-Research Complex for Eastern Region, ICAR Parisar, P.O: B.V. College, Patna, Bihar 800 014
Email: jsmishra31@gmail.com
Weed management with herbicdes in chickpea
Author Name: B.D. Patel, V.J. Patel, D.D. Chaudhari, R.B. Patel, H.K. Patel and A.D. Kalola
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00084.8 Page No:333-335
Volume: 48 2016 Short communications
Keywords:

Chickpea, Chemical control, Herbicde, Efficacy, Weed management

Abstract:

Oxyfluorfen 80 g/ha, oxadiargyl 75 g/ha, imazethapyr 50 g/ha as PE fb hand weeding at 30 DAS and IC at 20 DAS fb hand weeding at 40 DAS were found effective in reducing population of both monocot and dicot weeds and their dry weight as compared to other weed management practices. Higher yield attributing characters and yields were achieved when herbicides, viz. oxyfluorfen, oxadiargyl and imazethapyr were applied as pre emergence fb hand weeding at 30 DAS.

Address: B.A. College of Agriculture, Anand Agricultural University, Anand, Gujarat 388 110
Email: bdpatel62@yahoo.com
Integration of pre- and post-emergence herbicides for weed management in pigeonpea
Author Name: Guriqbal Singh, Harpreet Kaur and Veena Khanna
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00085.X Page No:336-338
Volume: 48 2016 Short communications
Keywords:

Net returns, Nodulation, Paraquat, Pendimethalin, Pigeonpea, Post-emergence

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted at Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana to study the effect of integrated use of pre-emergence herbicide pendimethalin and post-emergence herbicide paraquat on weeds, growth and yield of pigeonpea. Paraquat should be applied between pigeonpea rows as directed spray on weeds only using a plastic hood to avoid any herbicide drift on the crop plants. Pre-emergence application of pendimethalin 0.45 kg/ha followed by paraquat 0.48 kg/ha at 6-8 weeks after sowing effectively controlled the weeds, improved the grain yield of pigeonpea and also provided the high returns. Herbicides did not advesely affect  nodule number and nodule dry weight, indicating their safe use under field conditions.  

Address: Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab 141 004
Email: singhguriqbal@pau.edu
Bio-efficacy of quizalofop-ethyl + imazethapyr in black gram
Author Name: T. Ramesh
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00086.1 Page No:339-340
Volume: 48 2016 Short communications
Keywords:

lack gram, Seed yield, Economics, Imazethapyr, Quizalofop-ethyl, Weed control efficiency 

Abstract:

Tank mix application of quizalofop-ethyl 31.25 g/ha + imazethapyr 62.5 g/ha in 250 litre of water (2.5 ml each/litre of water) at 15 days after sowing was found most effective in controlling all type of weeds including volunteer paddy besides higher productivity and profitability of irrigated blackgram. 

Address: Tamil Nadu Rice Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agriculture University, Aduthurai, Tamil Nadu 612 101
Email: agronramesh@gmail.com
Management of common vetch and other weeds in relay crop of black gram
Author Name: A. Aliveni, A.S. Rao, A.V. Ramana and J. Jagannadham
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00087.3 Page No:341-342
Volume: 48 2016 Short communications
Keywords:

Blackgram, Management, Relay crop, Vicia sativa, Weeds

Abstract:

Broad-leaved weeds like common vetch (Vicia sativa L.), has become a problematic weeds in relay crop of blackgram, in recent years in the North coastal zone of Andhra Pradesh. Present experiment was conducted to find out the most suitable weed management practice for control of this location specific weed. Post-emergence application of acifluorfen + clodinafop-propargyl 0.3 kg/ha was found to be most effective and economical in managing Vicia sativa and other weeds in rice fallow blackgram as an alternative to manual weeding.

Address: Department of Agronomy, Agricultural College, Naira, Andhra Pradesh 532 185
Email: aliveni165@gmail.com
Weed smothering in jute with green gram intercropping
Author Name: A.K. Ghorai, Mukesh Kumar and C.S. Kar
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00088.5 Page No:343-344
Volume: 48 2016 Short communications
Keywords:

Green gram, Intercropping, Jute, Smothering, System productivity, Weed management

Abstract:

Jute equivalent yield varied from 4.7 to 5.3 t/ha and was profitable over sole cropping of jute, 3.9 t/ha only. Weed control efficiency of intercropping system was 68-82% over 63.6% in conventional manual weeding twice. Benefit-cost ratio of jute and green gram intercropping system varied between 2.2 to 2.46 over 1.8 in conventional manual weeding twice. CRIJAF nail weeder and CRIJAF herbicide applicator recorded higher weed control efficiency (82 to 84%) and B:C ratio (2-2.28) over conventional manual weeding twice (63.62% and 1.80). This jute and green gram intercropping system will improve jute farmers economy, provide protein security to rural mass, and take care of soil and animal health in rural sector.

Address: Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibres, Barrackpore, Kolkata, WB
Email: ghorai1960@yahoo.co.in
Pre-emergence herbicides for weed management in sesame
Author Name: K. Sathish Babu, D. Subramanyam* and V. Umamahesh
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00089.7 Page No:345-347
Volume: 48 2016 Short communications
Keywords:

Broadcast sesame, Pre-emergence herbicides, Seedling vigour index, Phytotoxicity

Abstract:

The study was conducted at S.V. Agricultural College, Tirupati during summer 2015 in a complete randomized design with four treatments consisting of pre-emergence application of pendimethalin 750, oxyflourfen and oxadiargyl 75 g/ha each and control replicated five times. Among the herbicides tested, pre-emergence application of pendimethalin 750 g/ha recorded the highest seedling vigour index followed by oxyfluorfen 75 g/ha in broadcast sesame on sandy loam soils. Pre-emergence application of oxadiargyl 75 g/ha showed phytotoxicity rating of “6” in broadcast sesame.    

Address: Department of Agronomy, S.V. Agricultural College, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh 517 502
Email: subbuagro37@gmail.com
Weed management in cotton with pre- and post-emergence herbicides
Author Name: Kulvir Singh, Harinder Pal Singh and Kuldeep Singh
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00090.3 Page No:348-350
Volume: 48 2016 Short communications
Keywords:

American cotton, Bolls per plant, Seed cotton yield, Weed control efficiency

Abstract:

Field experiment was conducted during Kharif 2014 to evaluate weed control efficiency of different herbicides for weed management and their effect on cotton crop. Highest seed cotton yield (3.55 t/ha) was recorded in weed free plots followed by pyrithiobac-sodium 62.5 g/ha + quizalofop-ethyl 50 g/ha + one hoeing (3.52 t/ha) owing to improved number of bolls per plant and boll weight. Statistically least yield was recorded under weedy check (1.92 t/ha). Weed control efficiency (WCE) was highest under weed free check (90.3%) followed by pendimethalin 1.0 kg/ha + quizalofop-ethyl 50 g/ha + one hoeing (71.0%), whereas minimum for weedy check (25.5%). Net returns (` 100916/ha) and B:C ratio (2.14) were highest for pyrithiobac-sodium 62.5 g/ha + quizalofop-ethyl 50 g/ha + one hoeing. Therefore, this set of chemicals combination along with cultural practices could be the practical solution for economically efficient and effective weed management in cotton.

Address: Punjab Agricultural University, Regional Research Station, Faridkot, Punjab 151 203
Email: kulvir@pau.edu
Yield and nutrient uptake in soybean as influenced by weed management
Author Name: Naresh Kumar Sharma, S.L. Mundra and Sontara Kalita
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00091.5 Page No:351-352
Volume: 48 2016 Short communications
Keywords:

Nutrient, Soybean, Uptake, Weed management

Abstract:

On the basis of one-year field experiment at Udaipur during Kharif 2014 it was emerged that pre-emergence application of pendimethalin 750 g/ha + hand weeding at 30 DAS recorded the maximum seed yield (1.38 t/ha) along with the highest economic returns in terms of net returns and B: C ratio of ‘ 27244/ha and 2.32, respectively.

Address: Department of Agronomy, Rajasthan College of Agriculture, MPUAT, Udaipur Rajasthan
Email: nareshrca123@yahoo.com
Biological activity of red wriggler earthworm using puncture wine weed with cow dung as substrate
Author Name: Irvinder Kaur, Anu Verma and Sant Kumar
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00092.7 Page No:353-355
Volume: 48 2016 Short communications
Keywords:

Biological activity, Earthworm, Vermicomposting, Weeds utilization

Abstract:

Fecundity study of earthworm species Eisenia foetida during vermicomposting of puncture wine weed (Tribulus terristris) mixed with cowdung in different combinations was carried out. It was observed that both weight gain and cocoon production was more when Tribulus terristris weed was mixed with pure cowdung. Net biomass gain by earthworm in different feed mixture was in order of C2>C4>C3>C5>C1 and that of cocoon production of C4>C2>C3>C5>C1. It indicated that Tribulus terristris weed is a good biomass and reproduction supporting medium which can be used effectively for culturing Eisenia foetida as well as recycling of weed material for production of vermicompost when mixed with pure cowdung. Therefore, there is a need to divert research activities to expore the potential of different weeds as a raw material for vermicomposting and their utilization and to design a national level policy for their proper utilization.

Address: Department of Botany, SBD Govt. PG College, Sardarshahar, Rajasthan 331 403
Email: ikkocharbot@gmail.com