Prin ISSN 0253-8040
Online ISSN 0974-8164

Indian Journal of

Weed Science

Editorial Board

Chief Editor


Dr. J.S. Mishra
Principal Scientist, Division of Crop Research,
ICAR Research Complex for Eastern Region,
Bihar Veterinary College, Patna - 800014 (Bihar)
Mobile - +91 9494240904
Email- editorisws@gmail, jsmishra31@gmail.com

Associate editors

&
Dr. Bhagirath Singh Chauhan
Hydarabad, INDIA
Email: b.chauhan@uq.edu.au
Dr. A.N. Rao
Hydarabad, INDIA
Mobile Number: +91 9440372165
Email: adusumilli.narayanarao@gmail.com

Editor- News Letter-Electronic


Dr. S.K. Guru
Pant Nagar, UK, INDIA
Mobile - +91 9411195441
Email- skguru123@yahoo.com

Editors

Dr. A.S. Rao
Mobile Number: 9959347340
Email: atlurisrao@gmail.com
Dr. Anil Duhan
Mobile - +91 9466051639
Email- a.duhan@rediffmail.com
Dr. Ashok Yadav
Mobile - +91 9416995523
Email- aky444@gmail.com
Dr. B. Duary
Mobile Number: +91 9434326193
Email: bduary@yahoo.co.in
Dr. C.R. Chinnamuthu
Mobile - +91 9442014373
Email- crchinnamuthu@yahoo.com
Dr. I.C. Barua
Mobile - +91 9435094326
Email- iswar_barua@yahoo.co.in
Dr. M.K. Singh
Mobile - +91 9452301027
Email- mksingh194.m@gmail.com
Dr. P. Janaki (Coimbatore)
Mobile Number: 9443936160
Email: janakibalamurugan@rediffmail.com
Dr. R. Poonguzhalan
Mobile Number: 9994556988
Email: poonguzhalan@yahoo.com
Dr. R.S. Chhokar
Mobile Number: 9416296262
Email: rs_chhokar@yahoo.co.in
Dr. V.S.G.R. Naidu (Rajahmundry)
Mobile - +91 8790819002
Email- naidudwsr@gmail.comm
Dr. Vijay Kumar Choudhary
Mobile - +91 9425244075
Email- ind_vc@rediffmail.com
Dr. Virender Sardana
Mobile Number: 9463747125
Email: virsardana@gmail.com
Dr. Yogita Gharde
Mobile - +91 9425412748
Email- yogitagharde@gmail.com

Overseas editors

Email: jpacific10@gmail.com
Email: amit.jhala@unl.edu
Email: asad.iags@pu.edu.pk
Email: zahoorganie11@huskers.unl.edu
Email: haider3993@gmail.com
Bioefficacy of flucetosulfuron in wet-seeded rice
Research article
Author Name: S.R. Arya and Elizabeth K. Syriac Volume: 50 2018
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2018.00026.6 Page No:103-107
Keywords:

Direct-seeded rice

Kanchana

Micro herbicide

New generation herbicide

Weed management 

Abstract:

Field experiments were conducted during rainy and winter seasons of 2016-17 in Kalliyoor Panchayat (8.44550 N and 76.99180 E), Nemom block, Thiruvananthapuram district, Kerala, India in order to assess the bioefficacy of flucetosulfuron in wet-seeded rice. The experiment was laid out in a randomised block design with 12 treatments and three replications. Flucetosulfuron 20, 25 and 30 g/ha applied at 2-3, 10-12 and 18-20 days after sowing (DAS) along with hand weeding at 20 and 40 DAS and weedy check comprised the treatments. Pooled analysis of the data for two seasons revealed the significance of time of application of flucetosulfuron in wet-seeded rice. Application of flucetosulfuron 25 g/ha at 10-12 DAS recorded the highest grain yield (8.33 t/ha), which was at par with flucetosulfuron 20 and 30 g/ha at 10-12 DAS and hand weeding at 20 and 40 DAS. Yield reduction due to weeds was found to be 52.33 and 55.61 per cent during rainy and winter seasons respectively. Higher yield attributes, harvest index, net income and B:C ratio were recorded for flucetosulfuron, applied at 10-12 and 18-20 DAS, irrespective of their dosage. The lower weed dry weight and weed index of these treatments substantiate the result. Henceforth, flucetosulfuron 20, 25 and 30 g/ha with a wide application window of 10-20 DAS can be endorsed for better weed management and higher yield in wet seeded rice. 

Address: Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, Vellayani, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 522
Email: aaryanarayan@gmail.com
Amelioration of herbicide stress with plant growth regulators and nutrients in transplanted rice
Research article
Author Name: S. Mohapatra, S.K.Tripathy and B.R Nayak Volume: 50 2018
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2018.00027.8 Page No:108-111
Keywords:

Brassinolide 

Gibberellic acid

Herbicide toxicity

Transplanted rice

Yield

Abstract:

Foliar application of two plant growth regulators (PGR)-brassinolide at 0.5 ppm, gibberellic acid at 10 ppm and one complex fertilizer NPK 19:19:19 at 1% concentration were tested alone as well as in combination with control (double dose of fenoxaprop-ethyl) and absolute control (normal dose of fenoxaprop-ethyl) against herbicide stress to rice during Kharif 2015 and 2016. The treatments were given 5 days after application of fenoxaprop-ethyl as foliar spray. Among the PGRs and nutrients, tank mix application of brassinolide at 0.5 ppm + NPK 19:19:19 at 1% recorded the lowest incidence of phytotoxicity (1.2) at 30 days after application and gave the highest grain yield (6.12 t/ha), net returns (` 49,431/ha) and benefit : cost ratio (1.32). Grain yield was more (5.92 to 6.12 t/ha) in brassinolide treated plot than that of gibberellic acid (5.81 to 5.83 t/ha) indicating more effectiveness of brassinolide than gibberellic acid in mitigating herbicide stress. Use of plant growth regulator and nutrient prevented 25.9% yield loss due to herbicide stress in rice.

Address: Regional Research and Technology Transfer Station, Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Chiplima, Sambalpur, Odisha 768 025
Email: sanjukta.mohapatra34@gmail.com
Impact of live mulches, cover crops and herbicides on weeds and yield of direct-seeded rice
Research article
Author Name: Pratik Sanodiya and Manoj Kumar Singh Volume: 50 2018
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2018.00028.X Page No:112-115
Keywords:

Azimsulfuron

Bispyribac-Na

Direct-seeded rice

Sesbania

Abstract:

A field investigation was conducted during the rainy seasons of 2014 and 2015 at Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, to study the impact of live mulches, cover crops and herbicides on weeds and yield in direct-seeded rice (Oryza sativa L.). Sesbania cover crop followed by (fb) bispyribac Na 25 g/ha + azimsulfuron 30 g/ha at 15 DAS had lesser weed density and dry weight of grasses, sedges and broad-leaved weeds than sunhemp cover crop fb bispyribac-Na 25 g/ha + azimsulfuron 30 g/ha at 15 DAS. Sesbania cover crop fb bispyribac-Na 25 g/ha + azimsulfuron 30 g/ha at 15 DAS had higher harvest index in comparison to sunhemp cover crop fb bispyribac-Na 25 g/ha + azimsulfuron 30 g/ha at 15 DAS. Sesbania cover crop fb bispyribac-Na 25 g/ha + azimsulfuron 30 g/ha at 15 DAS improved grain and straw yields with higher gross and net returns, and benefit:cost ratio as compared to sunhemp cover crop fb bispyribac-Na 25 g/ha + azimsulfuron 30 g/ha at 15 DAS.

Address: Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh 221 005
Email: prsanodiya10@gmail.com
Crop establishment and weed management techniques to control in wet-rice weeds under lateritic soils of West Bengal
Research article
Author Name: A. Hossain Volume: 50 2018
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2018.00029.1 Page No:116-119
Keywords:

Crop establishment technique

Pyrazosulfuron-ethyl

Rice

Weed management

Yield

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted in sandy loam soil at Visva-Bharati University, Sriniketan, West Bengal in three consecutive rainy season of 2008, 2009 and 2010 to study the effect of crop establishment techniques and weed management on weed dynamics and yield of rice. Conventional transplanting method was found to be the most effective in controlling all categories of weeds throughout the growth period because of stagnation of water in the plots. Among weed management practices, pyrazosulfuron-ethyl (25 g/ha at 3 DAS/DAT) + mechanical weeding (cono-weeder) was the most effective in controlling the mixed weed flora. Similar trend was also observed in dry matter of weeds. The highest grain yield (3.75 t/ha) was obtained under system of rice intensification (SRI) with pyrazosulfuron-ethyl (25 g/ha at 3 DAS/DAT) + mechanical weeding while drum seeded with no weed control practices recorded the lowest grain yield (2.00 t/ha). SRI system with pyrazosulfuron-ethyl + mechanical weeding also gave the highest net return (` 19890/ha).

Address: Sriniketan Centre, Palli Siksha Bhavana, Visva-Bharati, Sriniketan, West Bengal 731 236
Email: ahossaindwsrc@yahoo.in
Bio-efficacy of herbicides in direct-seeded rice
Research article
Author Name: T.U. Patel, D.H. Lodaya, A.P. Italiya, D.D. Patel and H.H. Patel Volume: 50 2018
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2018.00030.8 Page No:120-123
Keywords:

Bispyribac-sodium

Cyhalofop-butyl

Glyphosate

Hand weeding

Pretilachlor

Pyrazosulfuron-ethyl

Direct-seeded rice

Stale seedbed

Abstract:

A field study was conducted during summer seasons of 2015 and 2016 to evaluate the efficacy of post-emergence herbicides at Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari. Total twelve treatments consisting of pretilachlor 1250 g/ha and pyrazosulfuron-ethyl 25 g/ha as pre-emergence (PE); bispyribac-sodium salt 50 g/ha and cyhalofop-butyl 100 g/ha at 20 DAS as post-emergence; stale seedbed, hand weeding and unweeded check were evaluated. Pretilachlor 1250 g/ha PE or pyrazosulfuron-ethyl 25 g/ha fb bispyribac-sodium salt 50 g/ha at 30 DAS suppressed both weed density and dry weight over control. Growth and yield attributes, viz. plant height, no. of tillers, no. of panicles/length of panicles and no. of grain/panicles were improved significantly with pretilachlor 1250        g/ha PE fb bispyribac-sodium salt 50 g/ha at 30 DAS and pyrazosulfuron-ethyl 25 g/ha fb bispyribac-sodium salt 50 g/ha at 30 DAS. Similarly, higher rice grain and straw yields and maximum net returns were also associated with these combinations. Pre- and post-emergence application of pretilachlor 1250 g/ha or pyrazosulfuron-ethyl 25 g/ha PE fb bispyribac-sodium salt 50 g/ha at 30 DAS appeared to be a viable strategy for weed control in direct-seeded rice with higher economic returns.

Address: Department of Agronomy, N.M. College of Agriculture, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari, Gujarat 396 450
Email: tushagri.ank@nau.in
Diversity of Echinochloa spp. in Palakkad rice tracts of Kerala
Research article
Author Name: K.K. Aparna, Meera V. Menon, Jiji Joseph and P. Prameela Volume: 50 2018
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2018.00031.X Page No:124-128
Keywords:

Awns

Echinochloa colona

Echinochloa crus-galli

Rice

Abstract:

Surveys were conducted twice in the major rice tracts of Palakkad, once during January-February, and the other during August-September in 2016. Three major Echinochloa types were identified infesting rice fields, causing severe crop competition. The three types were E. colona, with awnless spikelets and two types of E. crus-galli, viz. E. crus-galli (type A) having short awns and E. crus-galli (type B) having long awns. Other than the length and arrangement of awns, there were no significant differences in the morphological characters of the latter two types. Frequency and relative frequency was the highest for E. crus-galli (type B). There was no specific association between the Echinochloa types and soil nutrient parameters, probably as there were no drastic differences in the chemical properties among the different locations. Cluster analysis classified Echinochloa types in to 5 groups at 66.67% similarity level. The study concludes that in a less productive environment, the awned types of Echinochloa could have a better chance of survival.

Address: College of Horticulture, Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur, Kerala 680 656
Email: m_vmenon@yahoo.com
Effect of crop establishment and weed management practices on growth and yield of wheat
Research article
Author Name: Manoj Kumar, Dibakar Ghosh and Raghwendra Singh Volume: 50 2018
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2018.00032.1 Page No:129-132
Keywords:

Conventional tillage

Herbicide

Residue

Residue burning

Wheat

Zero tillage

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted during the winter season of 2012-13 and 2013-14 at ICAR-DWR, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, to study the effect of crop establishment and weed management practices on growth and yield of wheat. Maximum reduction in density and biomass of Phalaris minor and Avena ludoviciana was recorded under zero-tillage with residue while in Medicago denticulata under conventional tillage practices. Zero tillage with residue retention recorded higher grain and straw yield as well as net return and B:C ratio. Among the different herbicides ready mix application of sulfosulfuron + metsulfuron (32 g/ha) significantly reduced weed density and dry biomass accumulation, and which was followed by application of mesosulfuron +iodosulfuron and mertibuzin  over weedy check due to enhanced of growth, yield and benefit cost ratio of wheat. As compared to weedy, the higher yield attribute character and yield of wheat was produced with the herbicidal treatments. The maximum yield, net return and B:C was achieved with the post-emergence application of sulfosulfuron + metsulfuron.

Address: Directorate of Weed Research, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh 482 004 1ICAR-Indian Institute of Vegetable Research, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh 221305
Email: singhraghu75@gmail.com
Tembotrione for post-emergence control of complex weed flora in maize
Research article
Author Name: Dharam Bir Yadav, Ashok Yadav, S.S. Punia and Anil Duhan Volume: 50 2018
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2018.00033.3 Page No:133-136
Keywords:

Grain yield

Maize

Phyto-toxocity

Tembotrione

Residues

Weeds

Abstract:

Bio-efficacy of tembotrione 42% SC w/v (34.4% SC w/w), a new herbicide for post-emergence control of mixed weed flora in maize was evaluated during rainy seasons 2009 to 2015 at CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Regional Research Station, Karnal and also through multi-location adaptive/farmer-participatory trials. Post-emergence application of tembotrione 120 g/ha along with surfactant (1000 ml/ha) at 2-4 leaf stage was found most effective against grassy and non-grassy weeds as compared to other herbicidal treatments either applied as pre- or post-emergence (including its lower doses, atrazine and 2,4-D) resulting into the highest productivity (3.77-4.44 t/ha) and profitability (B-C ratio 1.75-1.98) of maize in on-station experiment during 2009-2010. On an average, grain yield of maize under tembotrione 120 g/ha along with surfactant (4.04-5.00 t/ha) was also better than the atrazine 500-750 g/ha (3.59-4.43 t/ha) and untreated check (2.86-3.33 t/ha) at multi-location trials during 2013-2015. There was no residual toxicity of tembotrione on succeeding wheat. Residues of tembotrione at 120 g/ha + S 1000 ml/ha and 240 g/ha + S 1000 ml/ha in raw cobs, grains and straw of maize and soil were also below detectable level during 2015.

Address: CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, Haryana 125 004
Email: dbyadav@gmail.com
Herbicide options for effective weed management in zero-till maize
Research article
Author Name: B. Mitra, P.M. Bhattacharya, A. Ghosh, K. Patra, A.K. Chowdhury and M.K. Gathala Volume: 50 2018
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2018.00034.5 Page No:137-141
Keywords:

Atrazine

Economics

Halosulfuron

Maize

Pendimethalin

Tembotrione

Weeds

Zero tillage

Abstract:

A field experiment was carried out during winter seasons of 2015-16 and 2016-17 at Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Pundibari, Coochbehar, West Bengal with the objective of identifying weed management options with various pre- and post-emergence herbicides in zero-till maize in rice-maize cropping system. Three pre-emergence herbicides, viz. pendimethalin 1.0 kg/ha, atrazine 1.0 kg/ha and control in  main plots and six post-emergence treatments, viz. atrazine (0.5 kg/ha), tembotrione (120 g/ha), halosulfuron (90 g/ha), tembotrione (120 g/ha) + atrazine (0.5 kg/ha), halosulfuron(90 g/ha) + atrazine (0.5 kg/ha) and control in sub-plots were evaluated in a split-plot design. Results revealed that both pendimethalin and atrazine reduced the grassy weed population to a significant extent and among the pre-emergence herbicides, atrazine resulted in maximum reduction in grass weed population (69% reduction over the weedy check) at 20 days after seeding (DAS). Among the post-emergence herbicides, mixture of tembotrione + atrazine was more effective in controlling all classes of weed flora at 40 and 60 DAS. Tembotrione alone also showed a good control of grasses and broad-leaved weeds. Atrazine as pre-emergence followed by (fb) tembotrione + atrazine as post-emergence had significantly lower weed biomass (2.9 and 7.5 g/m2 at 40 and 60 DAS, respectively) and this combination reduced the weed dry matter to the tune of 98.7 and 97.9% at 40 and 60 DAS, respectively which ultimately resulted in significantly higher grain yields (11.57 t/ha) with maximum net returns (` 74210/ha) and B: C ratio (2.73). A strong negative correlation between weed biomass at 60 DAS and maize grain yield clearly suggested that weed biomass accounted for 55% variation in grain yield of zero-till maize.

Address: Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Pundibari, Coochbehar, West Bengal 736 165; 1CIMMYT, Dhaka 1212, Bangladesh
Email: bipmitra@yahoo.com
Efficacy and economics of imidazolinone herbicides in cluster bean and their residual effect on mustard
Research article
Author Name: Meenakshi Sangwan*, Samunder Singh1 and Satyavan Volume: 50 2018
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2018.00035.7 Page No:142-145
Keywords:

Cluster bean

Economics

Herbicide efficiency index

Imazamox

Imazethapyr 

Mustard

Phtytoxicity

Weed index

Abstract:

A field experiment was carried out at two different locations, research area of CCS HAU Hisar and farmer’s field (Kheri Batter) to study efficacy and economics of imidazolinone herbicides in cluster bean during Kharif 2013 and their carryover effect on mustard was observed during Rabi 2014. Significantly higher herbicide efficiency index (HEI) was observed under PE application of pendimethalin + imazethapyr 1000 g/ha and tank mixture 500 g + imazethapyr 50 g/ha at 30 DAS and these two treatments also provided better control of weeds at 60 DAS without any phytotoxic effect on cluster bean at both the locations. At 30 DAS, less dry weight of weeds was recorded under pendimethalin 1000 g/ha as PE, but at 60 DAS, due to new emergence of weeds, percent weed control reduced due to more dry weight of weeds, thus HEI was lower under pendimethalin 1000 g/ha PE. At 60 DAS, PoE application of imazethapyr 100 g/ha fb propaquizafop 62.5 g/ha provided the highest HEI which was at par with pendimethalin + imazethapyr (ready and tank mixture), but at Hisar, HEI of imazethapyr + imazamox at all the doses was lower due to heavy infestation of T. portulacastrum as compared to other herbicidal treatments. The lowest weed index (WI) was observed under pendimethalin 500 g + imazethapyr 50 g/ha (tank mixture) as PE which was significantly at par with pendimethalin + imazethapyr (RM) 1000 g/ha as PE and imazethapyr 75 and 100 g/ha fb propaquizafop 62.5 g/ha, but significantly higher WI was recorded under imazethapyr + imazamox due to lower efficacy against T. portulacastrum. The highest biological yield, seed yield, maximum net returns and increase over weedy check were obtained under pendimethalin 500 g + imazethapyr 50 g/ha (tank mixture) as PE and pendimethalin + imazethapyr (RM) 1000 g/ha as PE, but both were statistically similar to each other and similar to PoE imazethapyr 100 g/ha fb propaquizafop 62.5 g/ha at both the locations. No injury was visible at 2 WAS, 4 WAS and later stages on mustard.

Address: Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Rohtak, Haryana; Department of Agronomy, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, Haryana 125 004
Email: meenakshisangwan1991@gmail.com
Sensitivity and terminal residues of various herbicides screened for the control of broomrape in tomato
Research article
Author Name: Anil Duhan, S.S. Punia, Samunder Singh and V.S. Hooda Volume: 50 2018
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.10.5958/0974-8 Page No:146-152
Keywords:

Bio-efficacy

Phyto-toxicity

Residues

Orobanche management

 Herbicides

Abstract:

Sensitivity of sulfosulfuron, ethoxysulfuron, mesosulfuron + iodosulfuron (RM), glyphosate, metribuzin and imazethapyr against Himsona and Rocky hybrids of tomato and their residues in fruits and soil were evaluated in a field and screen house study during Kharif 2015 and 2016, respectively. Herbicides applied at different stages and doses caused injury to tomato seedlings in both hybrids up to 30 days after treatment (DAT). Phyto-toxicity was more prominent in case of mesosulfuron + iodosulfuron (RM) followed by ethoxysulfuron and glyphosate. Among both hybrids, herbicide toxicity was more in Rocky as compared to Himsona irrespective of dose and time of application. But crop recovered fully within 30 days in plots treated with sulfosulfuron at 25 g/ha either used as pre-plant incorporation (PPI) or pre-emergence (PE) and post emergence (PoE) applications of 25 g/ha twice on 15 and 45 DAT, respectively resulting in more number of fruits per plant and was on par with untreated check. For herbicides residues estimation, recovery experiments were performed by validation of analytical method at two fortification levels of 0.01 and 0.05 μg/g which gave average recoveries of different herbicides from 80.4 to 91.3%. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of various herbicides were ranged from 0.003 to 0.01 μg/g. In tomato fruits, residues of these herbicides were below maximum residues limit (MRL) of 0.05 μg/g. Residues in soil ranged from 0.023 to 0.186 μg/g in various herbicide treatments. Sulfosulfuron application at 25 g/ha was found safe for Orobanche management in tomato.

Address: Department of Agronomy, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, Haryana 125 004
Email: a.duhan@rediffmail.com
Effect of time of sowing and weed management on weed incidence, productivity and profitability of Bt cotton
Research article
Author Name: V. Hariharasudhan and C. Chinnusamy Volume: 50 2018
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2018.00037.0 Page No:153-158
Keywords:

Bt cotton

Time of sowing 

Weed management

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore during winter seasons of 2015-16 and 2016-17 to evaluate the effect of time of sowing and weed management methods on Bt cotton hybrid. Different time of sowing and weed management methods play a significant role in determining weed incidence, crop growth and productivity of Bt cotton in Western Zone of Tamil Nadu. Results revealed that, early time sowing of Bt cotton on 1st August with pre-emergence application of pendimethalin 0.68 kg/ha followed by post-emergence application of pyrithiobac sodium 62.5 g/ha recorded significantly lower total weed density, dry weight and higher weed control efficiency with better performance of cotton growth, higher yield attributes, seed cotton yield and economics during both the years.

Address: Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu 641 003
Email: tnauhari@gmail.com
Herbicides performance for managing weeds in berseem under sub-mountainous conditions of Punjab
Research article
Author Name: Sumesh Chopra and Mandeep Kaur Saini Volume: 50 2018
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2018.00038.2 Page No:159-162
Keywords:

Berseem

Economics

Green fodder yield

Herbicides

Weed management 

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted at farmer’s field of district Gurdaspur during the winter seasons of 2014-15 and 2015-16 to assess the performance of various herbicides for managing weeds in berseem under sub-mountainous conditions of Punjab. The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design having three replications and comprised of eight treatments, viz. fluchloralin 0.45 kg/ha, pendimethalin 0.75 kg/ha, imazethapyr 0.075 kg/ha, oxyfluorfen 0.1 kg/ha, fluchloralin 0.45 kg/ha followed by (fb) imazethapyr 0.075 kg/ha, pendimethalin 0.75 kg/ha fb imazethapyr 0.075 kg/ha, oxyfluorfen 0.1 kg/ha fb imazethapyr 0.075 kg/ha and a weedy check. All the weed control treatments caused significant reduction in weed density and biomass as compared to weedy check. The lowest weed density, weed   biomass, maximum weed control efficiency, more number of tillers, maximum pooled green fodder and pooled seed yield and highest net returns were observed with fluchloralin 0.45 kg/ha fb imazethapyr 0.075 kg/ha, which was closely followed by application of oxyfluorfen 0.1 kg/ha fb imazethapyr 0.075 kg/ha.   

Address: PAU Regional Station, Gurdaspur, Punjab 143 521
Email: kaurmandeepsaini@pau.edu
Elevated CO2 and temperature effect on growth and physiology of two Physalis species
Research article
Author Name: Saurabh Pagare, R.P. Mishra, Manila Bhatia, Dibakar Ghosh, P.K. Singh and Bhumesh Kumar Volume: 50 2018
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2018.00039.4 Page No:163-171
Keywords:

Antioxidant defence system 

Elevated CO2

Elevated temperature

Open top chambers

Abstract:

Physalis minima L. and Physalis peruviana L. are the two important species in India which grow under wild, weedy or cultivated conditions. Fruits of these species are edible with high nutritional values and may be suitable for stuff for the production of new functional foods and drinks. Climate change has been reported to influences almost every aspects of agriculture. Rise in atmospheric CO2 and temperature have been reckoned the two most significant variables involved in climate change. A study was conducted in open top chambers (OTCs) to understand the effect of elevated temperature (ambient + 2±0.5 oC) and elevated CO2 (550±50 ppm) individually and in combination on P. minima and P. peruviana. Study showed that elevated temperature as well as elevated CO2 individually and in combination had positive effect on growth and development, rate of photosynthesis, and water use efficiency of both the Physalis species. Rate of transpiration and stomatal conductance increased marginally in plants grown at elevated temperature, but a marked decrease was evident at elevated CO2 individually and in combination with elevated temperature as compared that in plants grown in ambient conditions in both the species. No significant changes were observed in relative water content and relative stress injury under any of the treatments in two species. Treatments- and species- specific changes were evident with respect to the activity of antioxidant enzymes and nitrate reductase, and peptide banding pattern using SDS-PAGE.

Address: ICAR-Directorate of Weed Research, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh 482004; Rani Durgavati Vishwavidyalaya, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh 482001
Email: kumarbhumesh@yahoo.com
Parthenium, water hyacinth and Medicago hispida weed substrates effect on population, biomass of earthworm Eisenia fetida and yield of compost
Research article
Author Name: Sushilkumar and Ashutosh Singh Volume: 50 2018
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2018.00040.0 Page No:172-176
Keywords:

Biomass 

Medicago hyispida

Parthenium

Ppulation

Water hyacinth

Weed substrate

Vermicompost

Abstract:

Farmers uproot plenty of weed biomass from their crop fields during weeding process and such biomass are generally thrown on the bunds and road side. Such weed biomass can be used for making vermicomoist to enrich crop soil. This study was done to see the effect of abundantly occurred weed biomass of Parthenium, water hyacinth and M. hispida as substrate on growth of earthworm Eisenia fetida and vermicompost yield. Increase in length and weight biomass of earthworms indicated that although E. fetida fed on all the three substrates provided to them, but most preferred weed species was Medicago hispida for the reproduction and development for the earthworm. The weight gained by total number of juveniles in different substrates indicated highest weight gain in the substrate of M. hispida (17.16 g/pot ) followed by Parthenium (15.63 g/pot) and water hyacinth (13.21 g/pot). The number of cocoons recovered from which different substrates was highest in M. hispida and was statistically significant with other two substrates, while it was non-significant in Parthenium and water hyacinth. The maximum yield of vermicompost was obtained from Parthenium substrate (55.22%) followed by water hyacinth (46.05%) and M. hispida (45.22%). The vermicompost yield was not significantly different in water hyacinth and M. hispida, however, it was significantly different in case of Parthenium. Germination of Parthenium seedlings was recorded in vermicompost collected in form of the pellets of excreta individually from the vermicompost. This test unequivocally revealed that Parthenium seeds are not killed even if passed through the intestine of earthworm.

Address: ICAR-Directorate of Weed Research, Maharajpur, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh 482 004
Email: sknrcws@gmail.com
Pre- and post-emergence herbicides for weed control in blackgram
Research note
Author Name: Priyanka Prajapati, Namrata Jain and Anamika Jain Badkul Volume: 50 2018
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2018.00041.2 Page No:177-179
Keywords:

Alachlor, Hand hoeing, Imazethapyr, Pendimethalin, Quizalofop-ethyl

Abstract:

Application of imazethapyr at all the rates of application (60, 75, 100 and 150 g/ha) significantly reduced the weed density and biomass as compared to quizalofop-ethyl followed by pendimethalin, alachlor and hand hoeing. Hand weeding superseded over all the treatments with the highest weed control efficiency of 96.5% followed by imazethapyr at 150 g/ha (71.9%), 100 g/ha (70.2%) and quizalofop-ethyl (70.3%). The post-emergence application of imazethapyr at 60, 75, 100 and 150 g/ha recorded significantly higher seed yield than pre emergence application of pendimethalin and alachlor and post emergence grass weed killer quizalofop-ethyl. The net monetary returns was maximum with hand weeding twice followed by imazethapyr at 150 g, 100 g and 75 g/ha. However, the benefit:cast ratio was the highest under imazethapyr at 75 g/ha followed by 100 g/ha

Address: College of Agriculture, JNKVV, Tikamgarh, Madhya Pradesh 472 001
Email: j_namrata1@rediffmail.com
Weed management effect on weeds, crop, nutrients uptake and soil physico-chemical properties in blackgram
Research note
Author Name: Raj kumar, R.S. Singh, Deepak Pandey and Manoj Kumar Volume: 50 2018
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2018.00042.4 Page No:180-181
Keywords:

Blackgram, Herbicides, Soil properties

Abstract:

Field experiment was conducted during Kharif season 2015-16 at N.D. University of Agriculture and Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad,  (UP) to asses the weed management effect on weeds, crop, nutrients uptake and soil properties in black gram. The result of the investigation revealed that application of imazethapyr + imazamox 80 g/ha PE was found superior in controlling weeds, increasing blackgram yield and nutrient uptake and recorded maximum benefit: cost ratio. Next best treatments were pendimethalin 1000 g/ha and metribuzin 200 g/ha PE.

Address: Department of Agronomy, NDUA&T, Kumarganj, Faizabad, Utter Pradesh 224 229
Email: rkpnduat@ gmail.com
Efficacy of post-emergence herbicides for weed control in soybean
Research note
Author Name: Harpreet Kaur Virk, Guriqbal Singh and Poonam Sharma Volume: 50 2018
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2018.00043.6 Page No:182-185
Keywords:

Leghaemoglobin content

Nodulation

Post-emergence herbicides

Soybean

Weeds

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted at Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana to study the efficacy of post-emergence herbicides for weed control in soybean. The herbicides (pendimethalin, imazethapyr, imazethapyr + imazamox and quizalofop-p-ethyl) did not show any significant adverse effects on the number, dry weight and leghaemoglobin content of nodules. Application of pendimethalin 0.45 kg/ha as pre-emergence (PE) + hand weeding (HW) at 40 days after sowing (DAS) recorded significantly higher seed yield than other treatments, however, it was at par with two hand weeding. Among the herbicides, imazethapyr at 75 g/ha applied at 3 weeks after sowing (WAS) recorded significantly higher seed yield than pendimethalin 0.45 kg/ha (PE) and weedy check and was at par with imazethapyr + imazamox 70 g/ha and quizalofop-p-ethyl 50 g/ha applied at 3 WAS. Application of pendimethalin 0.45 kg/ha (PE) + HW at 40 DAS provided the highest net returns (` 49496/ha) followed by two hand weedings. However, application of post-emergence herbicides imazethapyr at 75 g/ha and imazethapyr + imazamox 70 g/ha at 3 WAS were found promising in controlling weeds, providing optimum seed yield and higher B:C ratio. In case of scarcity of labour, post-emergence herbicides can play an important role in controlling weeds effectively.

Address: Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab 141 004
Email: hkmand@pau.edu
Herbicides effect on growth, yield and quality of onion
Research note
Author Name: Apurva Minz, Punam Horo, Sheela Barla, R.R. Upasani and Ravikant Rajak Volume: 50 2018
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2018.00044.8 Page No:186-188
Keywords:

Growth parameters 

Herbicides

Onion

Quality parameters

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted at Birsa Agricultural University, Kanke, Ranchi, during the year 2016-17 to study the effect of herbicides on growth, yield and quality of onion. The treatments comprised of application of oxyfluorfen (0.25 kg/ha) one week before transplanting, oxyfluorfen (0.25 kg/ha) immediately after transplanting, pendimethalin (1.00 kg/ha) one week before transplanting, pendimethalin (1.00 kg/ha) immediately after transplanting, pretilachlor (0.75 kg/ha) one week before transplanting, pretilachlor (0.75 kg/ha) immediately after transplanting, quizolofop-ethyl (1.00 kg/ha) 20 days after transplanting (DAT), hand weeding (HW) and weedy check. Results revealed that highest plant height (66.67 cm), number of leaves (5.98) and neck thickness (4.76 cm) were recorded in hand weeding at all the growth stages, which was at par with pendimethalin immediately after transplanting and pendimethalin one week before transplanting.The increase due to HW was in the tune of 78.88, 55.73 and 59.20% respectively than weedy check whereas, pendimethalin immediately after transplanting of onion recorded 63.94, 52.56 and 51.84% increase over weedy check. Hand weeding recorded 122% more yield (23.71 t/ha) than weedy check (10.68 t/ha). Juice content and TSS was the highest in hand weeding which was at par with pendimethalin immediately after transplanting, application of pendimethalin one week before transplanting and oxyfluorfen immediately after transplanting.

Address: Department of Horticulture, Birsa Agricultural University, Ranchi, Jharkhand 834 006
Email: sheela.barla123@gmail.com
Leaching potential of oxyfluorfen in soil
Research note
Author Name: Shishir Tandon Volume: 50 2018
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2018.00045.X Page No:189-191
Keywords:

HPLC, Leaching, Oxyfluorfen, Soil

Abstract:

Leaching potential of oxyfluorfen herbicide was evaluated in clay loam soil under laboratory conditions with simulated rainfall. Oxyfluorfen was applied at 240 and 480 g/ha on 60 cm long soil columns. Oxyfluorfen leached upto 10 cm soil depth but, maximum concentration (84.5%) of the total herbicide applied was observed on upper top soil. Residues were not detected in leachates. Study indicates low mobility of oxyfluorfen in clay loam soils under saturated moisture conditions and may not pose ground water contamination problem if not used indiscriminately.

Address: G.B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand 263 145
Email: shishir_tandon@lycos.com
First observation of field dodder and its host range in Meghalaya
Research note
Author Name: Nazir Ahmad Bhat, Licha Jeri, Yogendra Kumar and Aabid Hussain Mir Volume: 50 2018
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2018.00046.1 Page No:192-194
Keywords:

Cuscuta campestris, Convolvulaceae, Extended distribution, Parasitic weed

Abstract:

The present paper reports the first observation of a field dodder, Cuscuta campestris Yuncker from Meghalaya, Northeast India. Detailed field study has revealed a total of 51 host plant species, with Mikania micrantha Kunth., Parthenium hysterophorus L. and Duranta erecta L. being most favorable hosts. Anatomical study revealed that the parasite deteriorates the host plant by infiltrating its haustoria deep into the vascular bundles. It may also act as an economic threat to agricultural and horticultural sector in the state, as it largely reduces the host vigour and crop production. Therefore, there is an urgent need to control its invasion in the state.

Address: North-Eastern Hill University, Shillong, Meghalaya 793 022
Email: aabidm4@gmail.com
Effect of fertilizer and weed management practices on growth and yield of bidi tobacco
Research note
Author Name: C.J. Patel, K.M. Gediya, H.K. Patel and A.R. Patel Volume: 50 2018
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2018.00047.3 Page No:195-197
Keywords:

Bidi tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum L.

Abstract:

An experiment was conducted on loamy sand soil at Bidi Tobacco Research Station Farm, Anand Agricultural University, Anand, Gujarat during 2011-12 and 2012-13. Twenty treatment combinations comprising of four levels of fertilizer management (control; ammonium sulphate: 200 kg/ha; castor cake: 200 kg/ha and neem cake: 200 kg/ha) and five weed management treatments (unweeded, manual weeding, pendimethalin 1.0 kg/ha, isoproturon 1.0 kg/ha and glyphosate 1.0 kg/ha) were tried out in a factorial RBD with four replications. The application of ammonium sulphate at 200 kg/ha along with irrigation and manual weeding of broomrape were found to be the best practices.

Address: Bidi Tobacco Research Station, Anand Agricultural University, Anand, Gujarat 388 110
Email: chiragjpatel@aau.in
Purple nutsedge management by using herbicides alone and in combinations
Research note
Author Name: R.K. Mathukia, B.K. Sagarka, D.M. Panara and B.S. Gohil Volume: 50 2018
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2018.00048.5 Page No:198-200
Keywords:

Glyphosate

Herbicides

Nutsedge

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted during summer season of 2015-16 at Junagadh (Gujarat) to evaluate efficacy of a herbicides (halosulfuron-methyl, ethoxysulfuron, glyphosate) and their combinations (glyphosate + halosulfuron, glyphosate + ethoxysulfuron) in managing purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L.) under non-crop situation. Maximum purple nutsedge control (92.20%) at 30 days after spraying (DAS) and the lowest regeneration (5.76%) at 60 DAS was recorded with tank-mix glyphosate 1230 g/ha + halosulfuron-methyl 33.75 g/ha at 30 days after emergence (DAE), which was at par with halosulfuron-methyl 80 g/ha at 30 DAE (91.50% and 7.76%, respectively) and halosulfuron-methyl 67.5 g/ha at 30 DAE (89.53% 8.48%, respectively). Ethoxysulfuron 15 g/ha at 30 DAE resulted in significantly the lowest nutsedge control (12.84%) at 30 DAS and the highest regeneration (62.22%) at 60 DAS. The herbicides and their mixtures applied for control of nutsedge during summer season have non-significant effect on plant height and dry matter/plant of succeeding crops, viz. groundnut, pearlmillet, cotton and sesame

Address: College of Agriculture, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh, Gujarat 362 001
Email: rkmathukia@jau.in

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