Prin ISSN 0253-8040
Online ISSN 0974-8164

Indian Journal of

Weed Science

Editorial Board

Chief Editor


Dr. J.S. Mishra
Principal Scientist, Division of Crop Research,
ICAR Research Complex for Eastern Region,
Bihar Veterinary College, Patna - 800014 (Bihar)
Mobile - +91 9494240904
Email- editorisws@gmail, jsmishra31@gmail.com

Associate editors

&
Dr. Bhagirath Singh Chauhan
Hydarabad, INDIA
Email: b.chauhan@uq.edu.au
Dr. A.N. Rao
Hydarabad, INDIA
Mobile Number: +91 9440372165
Email: adusumilli.narayanarao@gmail.com

Editor- News Letter-Electronic


Dr. S.K. Guru
Pant Nagar, UK, INDIA
Mobile - +91 9411195441
Email- skguru123@yahoo.com

Editors

Dr. A.S. Rao
Mobile Number: 9959347340
Email: atlurisrao@gmail.com
Dr. Anil Duhan
Mobile - +91 9466051639
Email- a.duhan@rediffmail.com
Dr. Ashok Yadav
Mobile - +91 9416995523
Email- aky444@gmail.com
Dr. B. Duary
Mobile Number: +91 9434326193
Email: bduary@yahoo.co.in
Dr. C.R. Chinnamuthu
Mobile - +91 9442014373
Email- crchinnamuthu@yahoo.com
Dr. I.C. Barua
Mobile - +91 9435094326
Email- iswar_barua@yahoo.co.in
Dr. M.K. Singh
Mobile - +91
Email-
Dr. P. Janaki (Coimbatore)
Mobile Number: 9443936160
Email: janakibalamurugan@rediffmail.com
Dr. R. Poonguzhalan
Mobile Number: 9994556988
Email: poonguzhalan@yahoo.com
Dr. R.S. Chhokar
Mobile Number: 9416296262
Email: rs_chhokar@yahoo.co.in
Dr. V.S.G.R. Naidu (Rajahmundry)
Mobile - +91 8790819002
Email- naidudwsr@gmail.comm
Dr. Vijay Kumar Choudhary
Mobile - +91 9425244075
Email- ind_vc@rediffmail.com
Dr. Virender Sardana
Mobile Number: 9463747125
Email: virsardana@gmail.com
Dr. Yogita Gharde
Mobile - +91 9425412748
Email- yogitagharde@gmail.com

Overseas editors

Email: jpacific10@gmail.com
Email: amit.jhala@unl.edu
Email: asad.iags@pu.edu.pk
Email: zahoorganie11@huskers.unl.edu
Email: haider3993@gmail.com
Weed management in conservation agriculture in India
Author Name: Makhan S. Bhullar, Madhulika Pandey, Sunny Kumar and Gurjeet Gill
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00001.0 Page No:1-12
Volume: 48 2016 Review article
Keywords:

Adoption, Challenges, Conservation agriculture, Future, Opportunities, Socio-economic

Abstract:

Conservation agriculture (CA) involves minimum soil disturbance, permanent soil cover through crop residues or cover crops, and crop rotations for achieving higher productivity. Even though the adoption of CA in India is still in an early stage, it has been successfully used in the irrigated rice-wheat cropping systems of the Indo Gangetic Plains (IGP) and recently been demonstrated in parts of central India. Increased weed problems during the ‘transition period’ tends to be the most common hurdle in adoption of CA by farmers. Research has shown that cover crops could play an important role in weed management in CA systems; however, their level of adoption at present is fairly low. Changes in patterns of tillage, planting systems, and other management strategies can alter the soil environment and lead to a major change in weed flora. Herbicide use has been an extremely important component of weed management in CA systems but greater effort is needed to integrate non-chemical weed control tactics with herbicides. Farmer-participatory model of research has proved highly effective in developing CA in rice-wheat system in the IGP. Efforts are required to increase the rate of adoption of direct seeded rice and zero-till wheat throughout the IGP. At present, residue retention on farmer fields tends to be low. Greater awareness of the benefits of residue retention for improved soil health is worthy of an extension campaign in particular and in India in general. Research effort needs to be enhanced to develop CA and promote its adoption in non-rice-wheat cropping systems in India.

Address: Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab 141004
Email: bhullarms@pau.edu
Weed persistence, crop resistance and phytotonic effects of herbicides in direct-seeded rice
Author Name: M.M. Mishra, R. Dash and M. Mishra
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00002.2 Page No:13-16
Volume: 48 2016 Full length articles
Keywords:

Agronomic management index, Crop resistance index, Phytotonic effect, Weed persistence index

Abstract:

Results of experiment conducted during Kharif season of 2010 and 2011 with ten different herbicides and combinations on yield of direct seeded rice revealed that crop resistance index and agronomic management index were maximum in hand weeding treatment followed by fenoxaprop + (chororimuron + metsulfuron) and cyhalofop butyl +(chlorimuron + metsulfuron). Weed persistence index was also maximum in Hand weeding treatment followed by cyhalofopbutyl and pyrazosulfuron. Hand weeding treatment has maximum phytotonic effect followed by fenoxaprop + (chororimuron + metsulfuron) and cyhalofop butyl + (chlorimuron + metsulfuron). Fenoxaprop + (chororimuron + metsulfuron) and cyhalofop butyl + (chlorimuron + metsulfuron) were best herbicides for direct seeded rice from economics and environmental point of view. Fenoxaprop + (chororimuron + metsulfuron) and cyhalofop butyl + (chlorimuron + metsulfuron) have recorded lower persistence of escaped weeds indicating broad spectrum effect in controlling the weeds

Address: Odisha University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar, Odisha 751003
Email: mishramm2012@gmail.com
Integrated weed management under modified water regimes in System of Rice Intensification
Author Name: S. Mohapatra, A.K. Mohanty, S.K. Tripathy, S. Lenka, N. Panigrahy and B.R. Nayak
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00003.4 Page No:17-20
Volume: 48 2016 Full length articles
Keywords:

Irrigation schedule, SRI, Weed control, Water regime

Abstract:

A field study was conducted at Chiplima and Sambalpur under West Central Table Land Zone of Odisha during the winter (Rabi) seasons of 2013 and 2014 to evaluate different integrated weed management practices under modified water regimes in rice grown under System of Rice Intensification. Application of 5 cm depth of  irrigation water before the day of weeding operation was effective in increasing  yield significantly (4.72 t/ha) over saturation moisture regime (3.48 t/ha) due to low weed density, weed dry weight and highest number of ear bearing tillers per plant (24) and filled grains/panicle (72). Out of four levels of different weed management systems tested, the application of pretilachlor 750 g/ha (pre-emergence) fb chlorimuron-ethyl + metsulfuron-methyl 4 g/ha (post-emergence) recorded minimum weed density and weed dry weight, higher weed control efficiency and significantly higher grain yield of 5.45 t/ha. The same treatment also recorded highest net return ( 41, 441/ha) and highest B: C ratio (2.17).

Address: Regional Research & Technology Transfer Station, OUAT, Chiplima, Orissa 768025
Email: sanjukta.mohapatra34@gmail.com
Sowing time and weed management to enhance productivity of direct-seeded aromatic rice
Author Name: Neetu Sharma, Anil Kumar, Jai Kumar, Amit Mahajan and Lobzang Stanzen
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00004.6 Page No:21-24
Volume: 48 2016 Full length articles
Keywords:

Aromatic rice, Direct-seeded, Sowing time, Weed control, Yield

Abstract:

Field experiments were conducted during Kharif 2012 and 2013 sandy clay loam soil to study the effect of times of planting and weed management in direct-seeded aromatic rice in foot hills J&K Himalayas. Results revealed that direct-seeded basmati rice sown on 15th June and 10th July recorded non-significant results with respect to grain and straw yield. Among herbicidal weed management, post-emergence application of bispyribac at 30 g/ha recorded significantly higher grain and straw yield which was at par with post-emergence application of cyhalofop-butyl + 2, 4-D 90 g/ha + 500 g/ha and anilophos + ethoxysulfuron at 375 g/ha + 15 g/ha with B:C ratio of 2.98 and 3.95 during Kharif 2012 and 2013, respectivly. It was owing to higher number of panicles/m2, grains/panicle and 1000-grain weight along with lowest weed density, weed dry matter, higher weed control efficiency and lowest weed index.

Address: Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences & Technology Jammu, Jammu & Kashmir 180 009
Email: hanshunitu77@rediffmail.com
Development and testing of self-propelled cono-weeder for mechanized rice cultivation
Author Name: Musthafa Kunnathadi, P.R. Jayan and C.T. Abraham
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00005.8 Page No:25-28
Volume: 48 2016 Full length articles
Keywords:

Cono-weeder, Manual weeding, Mechanical weeding, Rice, Self-propelled weeder

Abstract:

Manual cono weeding in rice is a tedious job requiring more labour and energy. An effort was made to develop prototype of a self propelled cono-weeder under the AICRP on Weed Management at the College of Horticulture, Kerala Agricultural University, Vellanikkara, Thrissur with an objective to reduce drudgery involved in manual cono-weeding in rice. Main components of the newly developed self propelled cono-weeder are the main frame, a prime mover, front and rear floats and a rotor. Field experiment was conducted at Pattambi in Palakkad district to study the performance of the prototype in comparison with manual cono weeding and conventional weeding methods in rice. The weed density, weed dry weight and the grain and straw yields of rice at various treatments were observed. It was found that self propelled cono-weeder had a field capacity of 0.1 ha/h at an operating speed of 2.0-3.0 km/h. The weeding efficiency of the unit in rice was at par with that of the manual cono-weeder operated twice at 15 and 30 days after transplanting.

Address: College of Horticulture, Kerala Agricultural University, Vellanikkara, Thrissur, Kerala 680 656
Email: musthaffa.k@kau.in
Response of soil enzymes to elevated CO2 and temperature in weeds associated with rice-wheat cropping system
Author Name: C. Sarathambal, M. Rathore, D. Jaggi and Bhumesh Kumar
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/ 10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00006.X Page No:29-32
Volume: 48 2016 Full length articles
Keywords:

Elevated CO2, Elevated temperature, Open top chambers, Rice, Soil enzymes, Wheat

Abstract:

Biological properties of the soil have often been proposed as early and sensitive indicators of soil ecological stress or other environmental changes. In the present investigation, the soil samples were collected from weeds associated with rice- wheat cropping system from open- top chambers to assess the effect of elevated CO2 and temperature on soil enzymes. In Rabi season, higher activity of FDA hydrolysis rate was noticed in wild oat with 26.5 (µg fluorescein/g/h) at elevated CO2 + ambient temperature levels. Dehydrogenase activity was higher at enrichment of CO2 for P. minor with 35.9 (µg TPF/g soil/24 h). Urease significantly was higher in enrichment of CO2+ elevated temperature with wild oat 34.6 (µg NH4/g soil/24 h) followed by wheat (31.5µg NH4/g soil/24 h) with elevated CO2 + ambient temperature. In Kharif season, enrichment of CO2 concentration in rhizosphere of Echinochloa crusgalli recorded with higher FDA hydrolysis rate (19.8 µg fluorescein/g/h), dehydrogenase activity (39.8 µg TPF/g soil/24 h) and urease  activity (45.6 µg NH4/g soil/24 h) respectively. We found the carbon dioxide enrichment significantly increased the soil enzymes like dehydrogenase, fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis and urease activity in weeds rhizosphere than the crops

Address: ICAR-Directorate of Weed Research, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh 482 004
Email: saratha6@gmail.com
Heavy metal extraction by weeds in wheat and cauliflower irrigated with sewage water
Author Name: P.J. Khankhane and H.S. Bisen
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00007.1 Page No:33-36
Volume: 48 2016 Full length articles
Keywords:

Avena ludoviciana, Cadmium, Cauliflower, Copper, Lead, Parthenium, Wheat

Abstract:

The weed species emerged in wheat and cauliflower were screened for heavy metal accumulation ability under sewage water contaminated sites in Jabalpur and adjoining areas. It was observed that nearly 2-10 times higher accumulation of DTPA extractable heavy metals, viz. 0.42-6.30 µg/g cadmium, 2.43-24.1       µg/g lead, 3.06-89.43 µg/g copper, 88.9-226 µg/g manganese and 30-200 µg/g iron were recorded in sewage water soils than the tube well irrigated soils containing 0.69 µg/g Cd, 2.85 µg/g Pb, 62.8 µg/g Mn, 7.36 µg/g Cu, and 37.7 µg/g Fe. Relatively crops accumulated metals to lower extent than the weed species. Among weed species, Avena ludoviciana removed higher 69.6-122.3 µg/g manganese and 48.9-104 µg/g copper, Parthenium hysterophorus extracted 1065-2507 µg/g iron whereas Sonchus arvensis extracted 3.07 µg/g cadmium which were higher than the metal hyperaccumulating Brassica juncea (43.5 µg/g Mn, 19.0 µg/g Cu, 1352 µg/g Fe, 1.40 µg/g Cd). Thus, information on the build up of heavy metal concentration in soil and their removal by seasonal weed species grown on sites receiving sewage water indicate risk of metal entry in animal food chain as these weed species except Parthenium are used as a feed for animals. Besides this these weed species can be exploited for phyto-extraction of heavy metals under abiotic stress situation of metalliferrous sites.

Address: ICAR–Directorate of Weed Research, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh 482 004
Email: pjkhankhane@yahoo.com.ph
Imidazolinone herbicides for weed control in greengram
Author Name: Simerjeet Kaur*, Tarundeep Kaur and Makhan S. Bhullar
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00008.3 Page No:37-39
Volume: 48 2016 Full length articles
Keywords:

Greengram, Herbicides, Imazethapyr, Seed yield, Weed control 

Abstract:

A field experiment to study the efficacy of imidazolinone herbicides in greengram was conducted during Kharif seasons of 2012 and 2013. Ten weed control treatments viz. imazethapyr at 50 and 70 g, premix of imazethapyr + imazamox at 60 and 70 g/ha, both applied as post-emergence at 20 days after sowing; pendimethalin 1000 g and premix of pendimethalin + imazethapyr at 800, 900, 1000 g/ha, both applied as pre-emergence, along with two hand weedings and weedy check were evaluated. Imazethapyr alone and its premixes with pendimethalin and imazamox recorded effective control of mixed weed flora and produced significantly higher greengram seed yield than weedy check. Pendimethalin alone did not control Commelina benghalensis and recorded lower seed yield. All the herbicides were safe to crop.

Address: Department of Agronomy, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab 141 004
Email: simer@pau.edu
Pre- and post-emergence herbicides for weed control in greengram and their residual effect on succeeding crops
Author Name: B.D. Patel, D.D. Chaudhari, V.J. Patel and R.B. Patel
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00009.5 Page No:40-43
Volume: 48 2016 Full length articles
Keywords:

Greengram, Herbicides, Haulm, Residual effect, Seed, Weed control, Weed dry weight

Abstract:

Comparative efficacy of pre- and post-emergence herbicides in greengram and their residual effect on succeeding crops was studied during Kharif season of the year 2011-2013. Inter-culturing and hand weeding carried out at 20 and 40 DAS produced the lowest weed dry weight with higher weed control efficiency. Among herbicidal treatments, pre-emergence application of pendimethalin at 500 g/ha or imazethapyr 75 g/ha followed by interculturing and hand weeding at 30 DAS proved to be efficient in reducing weed dry weight with more than 70% of weed control efficiency and recorded higher seed and haulm yield of greengram. Further, it was observed that none of the herbicides applied at tested rates had adverse effect on succeeding wheat, chickpea and mustard crops.

Address: B.A. College of Agriculture, Anand Agricultural University, Anand, Gujarat 388 110
Email: bdpatel62@yahoo.com
Intercropping and weed management effects on weed dynamics, productivity and economics of pigeonpea
Author Name: Chunni Lal Rai, R.K. Tiwari1, Pawan Sirothia and Shailesh Pandey
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00010.1 Page No:44-47
Volume: 48 2016 Full length articles
Keywords:

Blackgram, Greengram, Intercropping, Pigeonpea, Weed management

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted to study the weed dynamics, productivity and economics of pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] under intercropping and weed management practices under rainfed. Among intercropping systems, greengram and blackgram were planted in paired row (2:2) system at 30/90 cm row spacing in main plots and six weed management treatments include pre-emergence herbicides (pendimethalin and oxiflourfen), post-emergence herbicide (imazethapyr) and their combinations in sub plots. Both the intercropping systems (pigeonpea + greengram or pigeonpea + blackgram) recorded higher Crop Equivalent Yield (CEY) (1.23 to 1.36 t/ha), Land Equivalent Ratio (LER) (1.6) and B: C ratio (2.5 - 2.7) than sole pigeonpea. Among herbicide treatments significantly higher weed controlling efficiency was recorded in pendimethalin + imazethapyr and oxyflourfen + imazethapyr (90.6 - 91.5%) as compared to pendimethalin or oxiflourfen or imazethapyr (72.1 - 84.6%).

Address: Department of Natural Resource Management, Mahatma Gandhi Chitrakoot Gramodaya Vishwa Vidhyalaya, Chitrakoot, Satna, Madhya Pradesh 485 780
Email: chunnirai_223@rediffmail.com
Herbicide combinations for control of complex weed flora in garden pea
Author Name: Anil Kumar Mawalia, Suresh Kumar and S.S. Rana
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00011.3 Page No:48-52
Volume: 48 2016 Full length articles
Keywords:

Herbicide combination, Pea, weeds

Abstract:

A field experiment was carried out with twelve weed control treatments during the winter season of 2012-13 and 2013-14 on a silty clay loam soil to evolve an effective herbicide combination to control the complex weed flora in garden pea. Phalaris minor (28.8%), Alopecurus myosuroides (21.3%), Avena ludoviciana (15.8%), Lolium temulentum (12.1%) and Vicia sativa (16.7%) were found major weeds in experimental area. Pendimethalin 1000 g/ha supplemented with one HW at 45 DAS being statically at par to the application of pendimethalin 1000 g/ha (pre) fb imazethapyr + imazamox 60 g/ha (post) significantly reduced the density of major weeds. In general, the efficacy of the formulated mixtures whether as double knock or as a sole application was found better than the sole application of herbicides. Pendimethalin 1000 g/ha fb one HW and pendimethalin 1000 g/ha fb imazethapyr + imazamox 60 g/ha being statistically alike with weed free resulted in significantly higher number of nodules, green pod yield and straw yield.

Address: CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Palampur, Himachal Pradesh 176 062
Email: mawaliaak@gmail.com
Bioprospecting medicinal potential of three widespread weeds from Pakistan
Author Name: Naila Safdar, Sughra Batool, Saima Tufail, Nousheen Masood, Rubab Zehra and Azra Yasmin
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00012.5 Page No:53-59
Volume: 48 2016 Full length articles
Keywords:

Assay, Antibacterial, Medicinal use, Weed utilization

Abstract:

Present study was carried out to explore the antibacterial potential of three weeds Mazus japonicus, Fumaria indica and Vicia sativa grown widely in Pakistan. Different extracts (aqueous, methanolic and petroleum ether) of the respective weeds were prepared and tested against nine bacterial strains using agar well diffusion assay. Bacterial strains included both gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus sp, Bacillus megaterium, Enterococcus faecium, Enterrococcus faecalis and Enteroccocus sp) and gram negative (Pseudomonas putida, Escherichia coli and Escherichia coli top10) bacteria. Ten different concentrations of each extracts were used. Enterococcus faecalis JH22 and Bacillus megaterium MB141 were the most resistant bacteria while Escherichia coli top10 was found highly susceptible and inhibited by all three extracts of M. japonicas and F. indica. Vicia sativa was effective only against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas putida at limited crude extract concentration while all other strains showed resistance against different extracts of the respective plant. Amongst the plant extracts screened for antibacterial activity, methanolic extracts showed best antibacterial activity whereas aqueous and petroleum ether were found least active. This study significantly supports the usage of these widespread weeds as traditional medicines for various bacterial infections.

Address: Department of Environmental Sciences, Fatima Jinnah Women University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan
Email: azrayasmin@fjwu.eu.pk
Herbicide combinations for weed management in transplanted rice
Author Name: K. Sreelakshmi, R. Balasubramanian, R. Babu and K. Balakrishnan
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00013.7 Page No:60-63
Volume: 48 2016 Short communications
Keywords:

Transplanted rice, Sequential application, Tank mixture, Weed control efficiency

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted during 2012-13, to study the effect of herbicides applied in mixture and sequence for managing complex weed flora in transplanted rice. Among the herbicides applied, bispyribac-Na applied in combination with almix as tank mixture recorded the least weed count, weed dry matter and highest WCE. Significantly higher yield attributes, viz. number of grains/panicle and grain yield were also recorded when bispyribac-Na and metsulfuron-methyl + chlorimuron-ethyl were applied as tank mixture. Pre-emergence application of pretilachlor fb post-emergence application of metsulfuron-methyl + chlorimuron-ethyl and hand weeding twice at 25 and 45 DAT were also equally effective. Application of pre- and post-emergence herbicide alone were found to be less effective in reducing weed density and weed dry matter.

Address: Agriculture College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Madurai, Tamil Nadu 625 104
Email: cheeku4sree@gmail.com
Optimization of suitable weed management practices for aerobic rice
Author Name: Pintu Mewada, S.K. Chaudhary, Anoop Kumar Rathore and Y. Singh2
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00014.9 Page No:64-66
Volume: 48 2016 Short communications
Keywords:

Aerobic rice, Hand weeding, Herbicides, Weed control efficiency

Abstract:

A field experiment was carried out at the Agricultural Research Farm, Rajendra Agricultural University, Pusa, Samastipur, Bihar (India), during Kharif season of 2012. The experiment involved 14 weed management treatments laid out in randomized block design with three replication. The highest grain yield (3.95 t/ha) was recorded with hand weeding twice at 20 and 40 DAS and lowest under weedy check (1.73 t/ha). Similar trend was observed in straw yield. Among different combination of herbicides, application of pretilachlor at 750 g/ha at 1 DAS fb azimsulfuron at 35 g/ha at 20 DAS was the best combination and comparable with hand weeding. Maximum weed control efficiency and weed control index were recorded under treatment hand weeding twice at 20 and 40 DAS and minimum under weedy check. However, weed density and weed dry weight were found maximum under weedy check and minimum with hand weeding twice at 20 and 40 DAS.

Address: Department of Agronomy, Rajendra Agricultural University, Pusa, Bihar 848 125
Email: anprathore@gmail.com
Weed management in maize
Author Name: Sheela Barla, R.R. Upasani, A.N. Puran and R. Thakur
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00015.0 Page No:67-69
Volume: 48 2016 Short communications
Keywords:

Atrazine, Pendimethalin, Maize, Productivity, Sesbania aculeata, Weed managment

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted on sandy loam soil of Birsa Agricultural University, Ranchi during rainy season of 2014 to evaluate the performance of weed-control methods on weed dynamics and productivity of maize. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with 12 treatment in three replication.  Application of atrazine + pendimethalin 0.50 + 0.50 kg/ha as pre-emergence similar to two hand weeding at 20 and 40 DAS recorded reduced weed density dry matter accumulation compared to weedy check at 30 and 60 days after sowing. These resulted significantly increase in plant height, number of grains per cob, 100-seed weight as well as 65.6% significantly higher grain yield (3.80 t/ha) as compared to weedy check (1.309 t/ha), consequently maximum net return (  53492/ha) and benefit: cost ratio (3.57) than rest of the treatments.

Address: Department of Agronomy, Birsa Agricultural University, Ranchi, Jharkhand 834 006
Email: sheela.barla123@gmail.com
Bioefficacy and phytotoxicity of pre- and post-emergence herbicides in grain sorghum
Author Name: J.S. Mishra, V.P. Singh and S.S. Rao
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00016.2 Page No:70-73
Volume: 48 2016 Short communications
Keywords:

Herbicides, Sorghum, Weeds

Abstract:

Bio-efficacy and phytotoxicity of pre-emergence tank mix application of atrazine + pendimethalin, pendimethalin + imazethapyr, ready mix application of pendimethalin+ imazethapyr (Velore), imazethpyr + imazamox (Odessey), penoxsulam, and post-emergence application of penoxsulam, atrazine, imazethapyr  and  imazethpyr + imazamox along with standard pre-emergence herbicide atrazine were evaluated at ICAR-Indian Institute of Millet Research, Hyderabad during rainy season of 2014. The field was dominated with broad-leaved weeds (65.8%) followed by grasses (26.3%) and sedges (7.9%). Infestation of weeds throughout the cropping season caused 37 % reduction in grain yield. Post-emergence (15 DAS) application of imazethapyr and  velore herbicides was highly phytotoxic and caused complete mortality of both sorghum plants and weeds at 2 weeks after herbicide application. Tank mix application of atrazine + pendimethalin (500 + 750 g/ha) as pre-emergence was safe and most effective in sorghum. Atrazine as post-emergence was less effective than its pre-emergence application. New herbicide molecules viz., penoxsulam, velore and odessey, though effectively controlled the weeds but reduced the grain yield due to reduction in number of grains/panicle.

 

 

Address: ICAR-Indian Institute of Millets Research, Hyderabad, Telangana 500 030
Email: jsmishra31@gmail.com
Weed management in rainfed finger millet
Author Name: M.D. Tuti, Sher Singh, B.M. Pandey, J.K. Bisht and A. Pattanayak
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00017.4 Page No:74-75
Volume: 48 2016 Short communications
Keywords:

Critical period, Economics, Weed index, Weed wiper

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted during rainy season of 2014 at Experimental Farm, Hawalbagh, Almora, to know the effect of weed management practices on weed index and grain yield of rainfed finger millet. All the weed control measures significantly reduced total weed dry weight and weed index as compared to that of weedy check. Manual weeding at 20 and 40 DAS (5.6 g/m2) significantly lowered the total weed dry weight followed by manual weeding at 20 DAS (7.4 g/m2). Weed dry matter recorded in weed wiper treated plots were at par with pre-emergence pendimethalin at 1 kg/ha and post-emergence 2,4-D at 1 kg/ha. Apart from weed free check highest weed index was found in manual weeding at 20 and 40 DAS (82.0%) followed by manual weeding at 20 DAS (68.5%). Grain yield was significantly higher in hand weeding twice (2200 kg/ha) followed by weeding once (2.02 t/ha). The highest B:C ratio was in manual weeding at 20 DAS (1.39).

Address: ICAR-Vivekananda Parvatiya Krishi Anusandhan Sansthan, Almora, Uttarakhand 263 601
Email: mangaldeep2t@rediffmail.com
Post-emergence herbicides for weed control in blackgram
Author Name: Hemlata Nirala, Anamika Sonit and A.L. Rathore
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00018.6 Page No:76-78
Volume: 48 2016 Short communications
Keywords:

Blackgram, Hand weeding, Weed control efficiency, Weed dynamics, Weed index

Abstract:

Experiment was conducted in the Research cum Instructional Farm, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur, Chhattisgarh during Kharif season 2009. The treatment comprised of 14 weed management practices and blackgram variety “TU 94-2”. The results revealed that higher plant population, plant height, number of leaves, number of branches, dry matter accumulation, number of nodules, dry weight of nodules, crop growth rate, seed yield, weed growth rate, weed control efficiency and harvest index were obtained under hand weeding twice (20 and 40 DAS), followed by imazethapyr at 25 g/ha pre-emergence and minimum was obtained under unweeded check.

Address: Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur, Chhattisgarh 492 012
Email: hemlatanirala@gmail.com
Management of complex weed flora in chickpea
Author Name: Mamta Dewangan, A.P. Singh, Tapas Chowdhury, Diproshan and Bhujendra Kumar
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00019.8 Page No:79-82
Volume: 48 2016 Short communications
Keywords:

Chickpea, Herbicides, Metribuzin, Oxyfluorfen, Weed management 

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted during Rabi season of 2013-14 at Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur (C.G.) to find out efficient herbicide combinations for weed management in chickpea. Further, significantly higher growth characters viz. plant height, number of branches, dry matter accumulation as well as yield attributes, seed yield, stover yield and harvest index were recorded under hand weeding twice at 25 and 45 DAS, which was at par with tank mix PE application of oxyfluorfen + metribuzin at 125 + 350 g/ha and registered an yield increase of 74.36 and 73.1%, respectively, over control. Metribuzin at 250 g/ha applied at 20 DAS and oxyfluorfen at 125 g/ha applied at 12 DAS showed phytotoxic effects on chickpea plants and recorded reduction in yield of 62.26 and 53.2%, respectively, over hand weeding twice at 25 and 45 DAS. Economics in terms of net return and B:C ratio recorded maximum under oxyfluorfen + metribuzin at 125 + 350 g/ha as PE. Dehydrogenase enzyme activity of experimental field was significantly maximum under control plot, followed by hand weeding twice at 25 and 45 DAS.

Address: Department of Agronomy, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur, Chhattisgarh 492 012
Email: mamtadewanganigkv@gmail.com
Integrated weed management for improved yield of soybean
Author Name: Sudha Patel, Rajni Kokni, M.B. Dhonde and A.B. Kamble
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00020.4 Page No:83-85
Volume: 48 2016 Short communications
Keywords:

Cultural method, Economices, Integrated weed management, Soybean

Abstract:

A field experiment was carried out on the silty clay soil at Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapith, Rahuri (Maharastra) during Kharif 2013-2014. One hoeing at 15 DAS and two hand weeding at 25 and 45 DAS best treatment in respect of growth attributing character and yield attributing characters. The weed dry matter and intensity was also lowest in one hoeing at 15 DAS and two hand weeding at 25 and 45 DAS, which was followed by pre-emergence application of  metribuzin at 2 DAS at 525 g/ha + 1 HW at 30 DAS, PE application of treatment pendimethalin at 20 DAS cs at 677.25 g/ha + 1 HW at 30 DAS, metribuzin at 525 g/ha  fb imazethapyr + propaquizafop-ethyl as post-aplication at 20 DAS at 80 + 60 g/ha. Metribuzin at 525 g/ha + 1 HW at 30 DAS was economic viable due to high B: C ratio and net return.

Address: Department of Agronomy, Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri, Maharashtra 413 722
Email: sudhapatel255@gmail.com
Efficacy of chlorimuron for controlling weeds in soybean
Author Name: Bhawana Saharan, Girish Jha, A.K. Jha and Pratik Sanodiya
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00021.6 Page No:86-89
Volume: 48 2016 Short communications
Keywords:

Chemical control, Soybean, Weed control, Yield attributes

Abstract:

The field was infested with monocot weeds like Echinochloa colona, Cyperus iria whereas dicot weeds Alternanthera philoxiroides, Eclipta alba, Commelina benghalensis and Phyllanthus niruri were less dominant in soybean. The application of Chlorimuron-ethyl 24 g/ha as early post-emergence along with mechanical weeding was most effective in paralyzing the weed growth to that of chlorimuron-ethyl (12, 24, 36, 48 and 72 g/ha) and mechanical weeding at 20 DAS. The application of chlorimuron-ethyl herbicide at 24 g/ha as early post-emergence along with mechanical weeding was significant superior for growth parameters, yield attributes and seed yield (1.61 t/ha) of soybean than rest of the treatments without any phytotoxicity on soybean plants and was found more remunerative in terms of NMR (Rs  20023.8) and B-C ratio (2.06) than application of chlorimuron-ethyl herbicide at 12 g/ha to 72 g/ha, as early post-emergence. Two hand weedings (20 and 40 DAS) proved to be the best in terms of yield (1.69 t/ha grain, 3.49 t/ha stover); however, NMR (Rs 20011.7/ha) was almost at par to chlorimuron 24 g along with mechanical weeding (Rs 20023.8/ha).

Address: Department of Agronomy, Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwavidalaya, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh 482 004
Email: bhawanasaharan@gmail.com
Effect of weed control on growth and productivity of soybean
Author Name: Naresh Kumar Sharma, S.L. Mundra and Sontara Kalita
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00022.8 Page No:90-92
Volume: 48 2016 Short communications
Keywords:

Fenoxaprop-p-ethyl, Hand weeding, Imazethapyr, Leaf area index, Metribuzin, Weed control

Abstract:

A field experiment was carried out at research farm of Rajasthan College of Agriculture, Udaipur during Kharif 2014 in randomized block design (RBD) with 14 treatments pre-emergence application of pendimethalin 0.75 kg/ha + hand weeding 30 DAS resulted broad spectrum of weed control besides gives higher grain yield. This weed management method found to be promising to control weeds of soybean crop and would play an important role in areas where labour is too expensive and time is a constraint.

Address: Rajasthan College of Agriculture, Maharana Pratap Agricultural University and Technology, Udaipur, Rajasthan 313 001
Email: nareshrca123@yahoo.com
Weed management with pre- and post-emergence herbicides in linseed
Author Name: Devendra, Namrata Jain and Vinamarta Jain
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00023.X Page No:93-94
Volume: 48 2016 Short communications
Keywords:

Herbicide, Linseed, Pre- and post-emergence, Weed control

Abstract:

Field experiment was conducted at Research farm, College of Agriculture, JNKVV, Tikamgarh during Kharif 2013-14 to study the effect of herbicides for controlling weeds in linseed. There was prevalence of dicot weeds in experimental field as these weeds constituted the higher relative density (67.8%) at harvest as compared to monocot weeds which had only 18.04% relative density. On the basis of results, it can be concluded that hand weeding twice at 20 and 40 DAS recorded significantly the lowest weed density as well as weed dry weight followed by pre-emergence application of pendimethalin at 1.0 kg + imazethapyr at 1.0 kg/ha. The seed and straw yields of linseed was significantly higher under twice hand weeding at 20 and 40 DAS followed by pre-emergence application of pendimethalin at 1 kg/ha + imazethapyr at 1 kg/ha, pendimethalin at 0.75 kg/ha + imazethapyr at 1.0 kg/ha and post-emergence application of imazethapyr at 100 g/ha. The highest net monetary return obtained with twice hand weeding whereas the B:C ratio was the highest with the application of imazethapyr at 100 g/ha followed by imazethapyr at 75 g/ha.

Address: College of Agriculture,Jawaharlal Nehru Agricultural University, Tikamgarh, Madhya Pradesh 472 001
Email: j_namrata1@rediffmail.com
Chemical weed management in castor
Author Name: K. Kalaichelvi and G. Senthil Kumar
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00024.1 Page No:95-96
Volume: 48 2016 Short communications
Keywords:

Castor, Chlorimuron-ethyl, Pendimethalin, Power operated weeding, Quizalofop-ethyl

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of early post-emergence herbicide namely chlorimuron-ethyl and quizalofop-ethyl on weeds in castor and also to evaluate its weed control efficiency over hand weeding and power operated weeding. It was revealed that pre-emergence application of pendimethalin at 1.0 kg/ha followed by mechanical weeding twice at 20 and 40 DAS has recorded lower weed density with higher weed control efficiency. Mechanical weeding twice, pre-emergence application of pendimethalin followed by chlorimuron-ethyl at 0.01 kg/ha or mechnical weeding twice on 20 and 40 DAS have recorded higher yield and economics. Mechanical weeding twice (2.58 kg/ha), pre emergence application of pendimethalin at 1.0 kg/ha followed by mechanical weeding twice at 20 and 40 DAS (2.57 kg/ha) or post-emergence application of chlorimuron-ethyl at 0.01 kg/ha (2.47 kg/ha) have recorded numerically higher yield and B:C ratio.

Address: Department of Pulses, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu 641 003
Email: kalaiagronomy@gmail.com
Post-emergence herbicides for weed control in sesame
Author Name: Sourav Gupta and S.S. Kushwah
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00025.3 Page No:97-98
Volume: 48 2016 Short communications
Keywords:

Herbicide, Phytotoxicity, Weed control efficiency, Yield

Abstract:

On the basis of above findings, it may be concluded that treatment Two hand weeding at 20 and 40 DAS, followed by treatment Propaquizafop 10% EC (PoE) 50 g/ha are most effective and remunerative weed control practices for controlling the weeds in sesame under sandy clay loam soils of Northern M.P.. The higher grain yield and net return were obtained from treatment two hand weeding at 20 and 40 DAS.

Address: Rajmata Vijayaraje Scindia Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh 474002
Email: souravgupta654@gmail.com
Energy usage and economic analysis of cotton under various weed management practices
Author Name: P. Leela Rani, M. Yakadri, N. Mahesh and P. Spandana Bhatt
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00026.5 Page No:99-101
Volume: 48 2016 Short communications
Keywords:

Bt cotton, Economical assessment, Energy consumption, Energy intensiveness, Energy productivity, Weed management

Abstract:

The objective of energy usage and benefit-cost analysis of Bt cotton was to determine the energy efficiency indices under different weed management practices in Bt cotton. The field experiment was carried out at college farm, Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad during Kharif, 2014 with ten weed management practices. The inputs in the calculation of energy usage in agro-ecosystems embraced labour, machinery, electricity, diesel oil, fertilizers, herbicides, pesticides, seeds, while seed cotton was included in the output. The results depicted that total input and output energy under different weed management practices were about 16051 to 18550 and 2360 to 16838 MJ/ha, respectively. Out of all the treatments tested the highest energy use efficiency (0.9), energy intensiveness (0.7 MJ/), specific energy (12.9 MJ /kg), energy productivity (0.9 kg/MJ), net energy       (-1712 MJ/ha) of Bt cotton production system were reported in mechanical weeding thrice at 20, 40 and 60 DAS. However the lowest energy intensiveness of 0.5 MJ per rupee was reported in pre emergence application of pendimethalin at 1000 fb 2 HW at 20 and 50 DAS treatment.

Address: Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University, Rajendra Nagar, Hyderabad 500 030
Email: leelagro@gmail.com
Integrated weed management in cumin
Author Name: Lokendra Birla, I.S. Naruka, R.P.S Shaktawat and S.r. Ajnave
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00027.7 Page No:102-104
Volume: 48 2016 Short communications
Keywords:

Cumin, Oxadiargyl, Weed, Yield

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted during 2013-14 at Research Farm, College of Horticulture, Mandsaur (Madhya Pradesh) to study the weed management practices in cumin. Twelve weed management treatments were laid in randomized block design with three replications. Weed free treatment recorded significant maximum growth and yield attributes of cumin followed by oxadiargyl at 0.06 kg/ ha (PE) fb two hand weeding at 40 and 60 DAS. Similarly, significant maximum seed yield (595 kg/ha), straw yield (900 kg/ha) and harvest index (39.7%) was observed with oxadiargyl at 0.06 kg/ha as pre-emergence fb two hand weeding at 40 and 60 DAS. Maximum weed population was measured in case of weedy check, which was followed by hand weeding (40 DAS) at all the growth stages of cumin. It may be concluded that application of oxadiargyl at 0.06 kg/ha as pre-emergence fb two hand weeding at 40 and 60 DAS may be use for higher yield of cumin.

Address: Department of Plantation, Spices, Medicinal and Aromatic Crops, College of Horticulture, Mandsaur, Madhya Pradesh 458 001
Email: rpssbkn@yahoo.co.in
Allelopathic effect of some aromatic plants on weed seeds
Author Name: Mool Chand Singh, Anjula Pandey, Madhu B. Priyadarshi and S.C. Dubey
DOI:                  http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2016.00028.9 Page No:105-107
Volume: 48 2016 Short communications
Keywords:

Allelopathy, Aromatic plants, Cogermination, Hoary cress, Scentless mayweed

Abstract:

Allelopathic effect of cogermination of aromatic plant seeds [basil (Ocimum basilicum), coriander (Coriandrum sativum), lovage (Levisticum officinale), oregano (Origanum vulgare)] and weed seeds [hoary cress (Cardaria draba), scentless mayweed (Tripleurosperum inodorum)] on germination and early growth of weeds was investigated under laboratory conditions. Basil, coriander and lovage reduced germination of hoary cress from 13.8 to 27%. On the contrary, all aromatic plants, except lovage, had stimulatory effect on germination of scentless mayweed. Coriander decreased root length of hoary cress and scentless mayweed for 17.5 and 16.5%, respectively. Shoot length of scentless mayweed was increased in cogermination with all aromatic plants. Only lovage had significant inhibitory effect on fresh weight of hoary cress, while fresh weight of scentless mayweed was increased by coriander.

Address: ICAR-National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, New Delhi 110 012
Email: mchsingh@gmail.com